- Slides: 20
Division of Germany Where: Germany, Europe West Germany is formed after UK, France and the US agree to join their occupation zones together East Germany (German Democratic Republic) was formed by Stalin (U. S. S. R. )
COLD WAR HOT SPOT
Berlin Blockade and Berlin Airlift The city of Berlin was also divided, but lay within the borders of East Germany West could only get in through certain highways, railways and corridors Western powers decided to introduce a new currency into W. Germany. Soviets refused to accept it in Berlin
Soviets blockaded the corridors, so no supplies could get into W. Berlin Allies countered with a massive airlift that supplied Berlin for 15 months! Soviets realized blockade wasn’t working. Results: -Two separate gov’ts for Berlin -Western Allies created NATO
Statistics Cargo (short tons) Flights USA UK France Total Food Coal Other 189, 963 1, 783, 573 296, 319 1, 421, 119 66, 135 87, 841 541, 937 240, 386 164, 911 136, 640 424 896 Unkown unknown unkown 278, 228 2, 326, 406 This battle, and one of the greatest humanitarian aviation events in history saved over 2. 5 million people without firing a single shot.
What: Berlin Wall, 1961 this barrier was built by the Soviets, intended to stop the massive migration of East Berliners to the West (for jobs, defections, etc) it became one of the biggest symbols of the Cold War, and didn’t come down until 1989 defectors trying to get “over the wall” would often be shot
The Korean War (1950 -53) North and South Korea Where: What: Korea was divided after Japan’s defeat in WWII North became communist South became democratic In 1950, the North invaded the South Kim II-Sung (leader in the North) Syngman Rhee (leader in South)
The UN sent in a force of troops representing 32 countries, including Canada Over 26 500 Canadians served, 1 000 wounded and 400 were killed Even when armistice was signed in 1953, the two sides remained divided
What it meant for Canada: Loss of troops Showed our support of the UN and our willingness to fight to support those goals
The Suez Crisis, 1956 Where: Suez Canal, dividing Egypt from Saudi Arabia What: The Suez Canal, opened in 1869, was strategically important as a trade route to India, but eventually more important as a link to the valuable oil countries of the Middle East.
Egyptian president Gamel Abdel Nasser seized this trade route from Britain and France Israel saw this as a direct threat from Egypt Britain and France joined with Israel to attack Egypt Soviet Union sided with Nasser What it meant for Canada: Prime Minister Louis St. Laurent refused to side with Britain and France Canada’s Minister of External Affairs, Lester B. Pearson, went to the UN and suggested the creation of an emergency body The United Nations Emergency Force went to the Suez to keep the combatants apart while a settlement to Egypt’s Nasser with U. S. S. R. s the crisis was worked out Khrushchev Pearson won a Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts in 1957
Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 Where: island of Cuba, Caribbean Sea What: Cuba’s leadership changes when Castro’s rebels overthrow the government. The US backs an anti-Castro invasion which fails (“Bay of Pigs”), Encourages Cuba to turn to the USSR for support US and USSR were stockpiling their nuclear weapons. US spotted Soviet missiles in Cuba through aerial surveillance This now gave the US only a few minutes of advance warning from a Soviet attack US set up a naval blockade around Cuba, defying Soviet ships to continue bringing their missiles into Cuba
Soviets continued on their path, protected by submarines Everyone was sure this would lead to nuclear war From left to right: Cuba’s Fidel Castro, US’s J. F. Kennedy and U. S. S. R. ’s Nikita Kruschev At the last minute, Khrushchev agrees to dismantle missile bases in exchange for a US promise not to invade Cuba and for the US to dismantle missile sites in Turkey.
What it meant for Canada: -- US expected Canada to support its stance against USSR and Cuba -- PM Diefenbaker did not “jump on board” -- US planes armed with nuclear weapons were not allowed to land at Canadian bases -- The prime minister’s stance harmed the relationship we had with the U. S. NO US PLANES IN MY CANADA
The Vietnam War, 1954 -1975 Where: North and South Vietnam What: The Indochina War between France and the Communist Vietminh ended with the defeat of the French in 1954. The country was divided between Communist North and the anti-communist (partly democratic) South North Vietnam leader – Ho Chi Minh South Vietnam leader Ngo Dinh Diem
The US supported the South, USSR supported the North The US believed that if the North won, the “domino theory” would result, nearby nations would fall to communism Lyndon B Johnson increased the number of US troops in Vietnam from 15 000 (1963) to 543 000 (1969) “Hey, hey LBJ… how many kids did you kill today? ”
This was the first televised war, and protest in America grew as they witnessed the failures in Vietnam
The Tet Offensive US soldiers had massacred women and children in the village of My Lai The Viet Cong launched a massive offensive, attacking cities throughout South Vietnam US presidency changes hands, as Nixon promised to remove troops out of Vietnam The US completely withdrew by 1973 Vietnam was taken over by the communists of the North President Richard Nixon
What it meant for Canada: *Some Americans did anything they could to avoid the “draft”… so they fled to Canada. (“Draft Dodgers”) *Many anti-communists fled Vietnam and arrived as refugees in Canada *Some Canadians profited from sales of goods for the war *“Better dead than RED” was a popular saying a the time, but not widely agreed upon *During the war, PM Pearson publicly criticized the war and was publicly scolded by then president Johnson (See Page 145 of Counterpoints)