Disorder Treatment Psychotherapies Talk Therapies Biomedical Therapies Biomedical

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Disorder Treatment Psychotherapies “Talk Therapies” Biomedical Therapies

Disorder Treatment Psychotherapies “Talk Therapies” Biomedical Therapies

Biomedical Treatment Surgery Drugs Electrical Stimulation

Biomedical Treatment Surgery Drugs Electrical Stimulation

Biomedical Treatments • Double-blind technique has shown many medical treatments to be effective •

Biomedical Treatments • Double-blind technique has shown many medical treatments to be effective • Often used in combo with talk therapies • Challenge: blood-brain barrier • Currently, psychiatrists or other MD’s prescribe meds

Psychosurgery • Lobotomies • 1930 s – 1950 s • Currently: Psychosurgeries almost never

Psychosurgery • Lobotomies • 1930 s – 1950 s • Currently: Psychosurgeries almost never performed (thanks to drugs) • Sometimes used to reduce seizures; to treat OCD • Much more precise; not as drastic

Biomedical Treatment Surgery Drugs Electrical Stimulation

Biomedical Treatment Surgery Drugs Electrical Stimulation

Neuroleptics: Antipsychotic Drugs Finding correct dosage difficult, but these help many live more normal

Neuroleptics: Antipsychotic Drugs Finding correct dosage difficult, but these help many live more normal lives Haldol (Haloperidol) & Thorazine (Chlorpromazine) • “Old” antipsychotics • No longer first choice for treatment; side effects very serious • Dopamine antagonists; reduce positive symptoms Risperdal (Risperidone) & Clozaril (Clozapine) • “New” antipsychotics • Impact dopamine (antagonist) & other neurotransmitters • May reduce positive and negative symptoms

Drugs and Hospitalization

Drugs and Hospitalization

Emptying of Mental Hospitals

Emptying of Mental Hospitals

Side Effects of Neuroleptics • Dryness of mouth, involuntary jerking movements • Weight gain,

Side Effects of Neuroleptics • Dryness of mouth, involuntary jerking movements • Weight gain, sexual side effects • Long term side effect: tardive dyskinesia • Uncontrollable repetitive movements (e. g. facial tics)

Antidepressants • SSRI’s – Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors • Prozac (fluoxetine) • Zoloft •

Antidepressants • SSRI’s – Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors • Prozac (fluoxetine) • Zoloft • Paxil

Prozac, Paxil Zoloft • Work by blocking serotonin reuptake.

Prozac, Paxil Zoloft • Work by blocking serotonin reuptake.

Mood Stabilizers • Lithium – stabilizes bipolar symptoms • Very effective (7/10 benefit from

Mood Stabilizers • Lithium – stabilizes bipolar symptoms • Very effective (7/10 benefit from long-term use) • Mechanism not well understood

Anxiolytics: Antianxiety Drugs (also “tranquilizers”) • Benzodiazepines • Xanax, Valium, Librium • Depress central

Anxiolytics: Antianxiety Drugs (also “tranquilizers”) • Benzodiazepines • Xanax, Valium, Librium • Depress central nervous system (CNS) activity (like alcohol…so don’t mix!), produces calming effect • May lead to dependence & withdrawal unpleasant • Criticism: does not solve underlying problem…

Biomedical Treatment Surgery Drugs Electrical Stimulation

Biomedical Treatment Surgery Drugs Electrical Stimulation

Electrical Stimulationr. TMS • ECT – Electroconvulsive Therapy • Treatment of last resort for

Electrical Stimulationr. TMS • ECT – Electroconvulsive Therapy • Treatment of last resort for depression • 80% of patients improve w/in 2 weeks • Side effect: temp. memory loss DBS • r. TMS - repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation • VNS – Vagus Nerve Stimulation • DBS – Deep Brain Stimulation (used for OCD) VNS