Disciplined Learning The successor to risk reduction Dr

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Disciplined Learning: The successor to risk reduction Dr. Alistair Cockburn http: //Alistair. Cockburn. us

Disciplined Learning: The successor to risk reduction Dr. Alistair Cockburn http: //Alistair. Cockburn. us ©Alistair Cockburn 2013

2 People. . . tin Inv Deciding g tin ica en un mm g

2 People. . . tin Inv Deciding g tin ica en un mm g Co Cr So ea Ex lv in tin pr g g in es a a a sin pr so lan g ob lu gu id le tio m ag ea n e s … they don’t understand which keeps changing To an interpreter unforgiving of error Making decisions Where every decision has economic consequences and resources are limited. ©Alistair Cockburn 2013

3 Commitment to decisions Growth of business value (Thanks to Dr. Mary Shaw, CMU

3 Commitment to decisions Growth of business value (Thanks to Dr. Mary Shaw, CMU for this graph) time ©Alistair Cockburn 2013

4 Craft Cooperative Game Knowledge Acquisition Flow Self-Awareness origami courtesy of Gery Derbier ©Alistair

4 Craft Cooperative Game Knowledge Acquisition Flow Self-Awareness origami courtesy of Gery Derbier ©Alistair Cockburn 2013

5 Self Awareness: People don’t match formulas ©Alistair Cockburn 2013

5 Self Awareness: People don’t match formulas ©Alistair Cockburn 2013

6 Cooperative Games: positions, moves (invent, communicate), strategies Infinite Open-ended Finite goal-directed Career Management

6 Cooperative Games: positions, moves (invent, communicate), strategies Infinite Open-ended Finite goal-directed Career Management Organization Survival King-of-the-hill wrestling Poker Tennis Chess Competitive Product Line Management Jazz music IT Systems Rock-Climbing Theater Business Exploration Journalism Software Development Cooperative ©Alistair Cockburn 2013

7 Flow: Design=manufacturing if Inventory=Decisions! I wish they’d decide what style they want! A

7 Flow: Design=manufacturing if Inventory=Decisions! I wish they’d decide what style they want! A decision I wish they’d decide on the UI design already! UI Designers Users & Sponsors I wish they’d decide what functions they want! Business Analysts Programmers Every line of code is a decision I wish they’d think a bit more carefully before coding! Testers ©Alistair Cockburn 2013

8 Flow: Global optimization Convert jamsto continuous flow. UI Designers Users & Sponsors Programmers

8 Flow: Global optimization Convert jamsto continuous flow. UI Designers Users & Sponsors Programmers Testers Business Analysts ©Alistair Cockburn 2013

9 Craft: People learn skills in 3 stages Shu: Learn a technique Ha: Collect

9 Craft: People learn skills in 3 stages Shu: Learn a technique Ha: Collect techniques Ri: Invent / blend techniques ©Alistair Cockburn 2013

10 Disciplined Knowledge Acquisition ©Alistair Cockburn 2013

10 Disciplined Knowledge Acquisition ©Alistair Cockburn 2013

11 Payoff = Trim-the-Tail: Deliver by value or date Trim to deliver Delay to

11 Payoff = Trim-the-Tail: Deliver by value or date Trim to deliver Delay to get more on-time (or early) or better ©Alistair Cockburn 2013

12 Big-Bang Design is a late-learning strategy Growth of knowledge with big-bang integration cost

12 Big-Bang Design is a late-learning strategy Growth of knowledge with big-bang integration cost Knowledge comes at the “moment of truth”: final integration. Delivers nearly no knowledge (or risk reduction) time ©Alistair Cockburn 2013

13 We can pay to learn early in the project Growth of knowledge with

13 We can pay to learn early in the project Growth of knowledge with early, continuous integration Delivers knowledge (risk reduction) Development sequence indifferent (with respect to knowledge) cost time ©Alistair Cockburn 2013

14 Develop for business value once risks are down Knowledge growing (risk reduction) Business

14 Develop for business value once risks are down Knowledge growing (risk reduction) Business value growing cost Risk / learn: - business - social - technical - cost / schedule time ©Alistair Cockburn 2013

15 Payoff = Trim-the-Tail: Deliver by value or date Trim to deliver Delay to

15 Payoff = Trim-the-Tail: Deliver by value or date Trim to deliver Delay to get more on-time (or early) or better ©Alistair Cockburn 2013

16 Business Learning: (Risk: Learning: Are we building the right thing? ) What should

16 Business Learning: (Risk: Learning: Are we building the right thing? ) What should we build? l Paper prototyping l Ambassador user l Early delivery l Empty delivery and Manual delivery l “Hothousing” - tunneling to feedback ©Alistair Cockburn 2013

17 Social Learning: (Risk: Learning: Can these people do the job? ) How can

17 Social Learning: (Risk: Learning: Can these people do the job? ) How can we make them a stronger team? l Early victory l "Walking Skeleton” l "Simplest first, worst second" [AC-sfws] ©Alistair Cockburn 2013

18 Technical Learning: (Risk: Learning: Why won’t our beautiful design work? ) How do

18 Technical Learning: (Risk: Learning: Why won’t our beautiful design work? ) How do we correct it so it works? l Micro-incremental development l Walking skeleton l Spikes l Story splitting ©Alistair Cockburn 2013

19 Cost / schedule Learning: (Risk: Learning: Will we deliver it on time/budget? )

19 Cost / schedule Learning: (Risk: Learning: Will we deliver it on time/budget? ) How long will this really take? l Core Samples l Microcosm ©Alistair Cockburn 2013

20 Three stages per feature: Risk, Value, Tail Value Knowledge / risk reduction Item

20 Three stages per feature: Risk, Value, Tail Value Knowledge / risk reduction Item 1 item 2 item 3 item 4 : risk. . . . value … … …. . tail. . . . time ©Alistair Cockburn 2013

21 Extended by G. Benefield’s Outcomes-Options model ©Alistair Cockburn 2013

21 Extended by G. Benefield’s Outcomes-Options model ©Alistair Cockburn 2013

22 Extended by G. Benefield’s Outcomes-Options model ©Alistair Cockburn 2013

22 Extended by G. Benefield’s Outcomes-Options model ©Alistair Cockburn 2013

23 Learn Early Learn Often : beyond risk reduction http: //alistair. cockburn. us/Disciplined+Learning ©Alistair

23 Learn Early Learn Often : beyond risk reduction http: //alistair. cockburn. us/Disciplined+Learning ©Alistair Cockburn 2013