- Slides: 12
DISADVANTAGED GROUPS Physically and Mentally Handicaps
DISABILITY Physically and Mentally Handicap persons are called as ‘Disabled’. United Nation has defined Disabled as “those who have long term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairments which in interaction with various barriers may hinder their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others”. It includes: � Impairments: Problem of body function or structure. � Activity limitations: Difficulty encountered by an individual in executing a task or action. � Participatory restrictions: Problem experienced by an individual in numerous life situations.
DISABILITY AND POVERTY Poverty Limited access to health care, education and employment Unsafe living and working conditions, limited access to healthcare Disability
LAWS RELATED TO DISABLED The Indian Lunacy Act 1912 The Lepers Act, 1899 Persons With Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act 1995 National Trust for Welfare of Persons with Autism, Cerebral Palsy, Mental Retardation and Multiple Disabilities Act 1999 Rehabilitation Council of India Act 1992 The Mental Health Act 1987
PWD ACT, 1995 Education: � Section 26: Provision for free education in an appropriate environment for every child with disability up to 18 years of age. � Section 39: Provision for reservation of not less than 3% seats for admission to Government/ Government aided educational institutions. � Section 30: Government has to prepare comprehensive education schemes with provision of transport facilities, barrier free access to schools, supply of uniforms, books, other materials, scholarship etc. to children with disabilities.
PWD ACT, 1995 Employment / Social Security: � Section 33: Provision for reservation in vacancies to the tune of not less than 3% in government establishments in all grades of jobs. � Section 40: Provision of reservation of not less than 3% quota for persons with disabilities in all poverty alleviation schemes. � Section 41: Provision for providing incentives to public sector and private employers to ensure that at least 5% of their work force is composed of person with disability. � Section 42: Provision for schemes to provide aids and appliances to persons with disabilities. � Section 43: Preferential allotment of land at concessional rates in favour of persons with disabilities for residential purpose, setting up business, setting up of special recreation centres, establishment of special schools, establishment of research centres, establishment of factories by entrepreneurs with disabilities. � Section 68: Provision for unemployment allowance for such persons with disabilities who could not be gainfully employed even after two years of their registration with a special employment exchange.
PWD ACT, 1995 Non-discrimination and Barrier Free Access � Section 44: Provision for special measures to adapt rail compartments, buses, vessels and aircrafts in such a way that they become accessible to persons with disabilities, including toilets. � Section 45: Provision to make roads and public places barrier free including installation of auditory signals at red lights, causing curb cuts and slopes to be made in pavements for the easy access of wheel chair users, engraving on surface of the zebra crossing for the blind or for persons with low vision, engraving on edges of railway platforms for the blind or for persons with low vision, warning signals at appropriate places etc. � Section 46: Provision for barrier free access in public buildings, work places, and recreation centres including provision for ramps, Braille symbols and auditory signals in elevators or lifts, ramps in hospitals, primary health centres and other medical and rehabilitation institutions. � Section 47 (1): Ban on dispensing or reducing in rank an employee who acquires a disability during his/ her service. � Section 47 (2): Promotion can’t be denied to a person on the ground of his/ her disability.
PWD ACT, 1995 Complaints � Section 59: Provision for lodging complaints in respect of deprivation of rights of person with disabilities etc. , with the Chief Commissioner, Disabilities. � Section 62: Provision for lodging complaint with Commissioner, Disabilities (state level) in respect of deprivation of rights of persons with disabilities etc.
DEPRIVATION OF RIGHTS OF DISABLED Access: � Architectural Barriers: It includes lack of ramps, railings, signage, Braille Print, adequate spacing, slip resistant floors, accessible toilets and chairs, switches, shelves, wash basins, taps and telephones at an accessible height. � Inaccessibility to quality education: In the areas like education, special schools, teaching aids, books in Braille and interpreters for the hearing and speech impaired are still not available to large sections of the disabled. � Inaccessibility to entertainment: Generally disabled are not able to access the Entertainment sources such as, theatres, libraries etc. , as these are not designed keeping in view the accessibility to Disabled persons. � Inaccessibility to technology: For people with disabilities the majority of Internet related technologies are inaccessible. E. g. People who experience visual impairments may face problem due to a lack of compatibility of Web content with the screen reader they use.
DEPRIVATION OF RIGHTS OF DISABLED Employment: The disability Act 1995 provides for 3% reservation in all categories of jobs in government sector. Still most of the Disabled are not able to get a job. Education: � � � � In India education to the disabled is not provided as part of the main schools but through other isolated special schools which operate on a service and charity mode. There are only around 3000 special schools in India today. Out of these, 900 schools are for the hearing impaired, 400 for children with visual impairment, 700 for loco motor disability and 1000 for the mentally disabled. Another government sponsored programme is IEDC (Integrated Education for Disabled Children), in which around 50, 000 children with disability are enrolled. But integrated schools don’t have special provisions of resource rooms, special aids and special teachers. These education options are restricted only to big cities. There are no special schools or education services in rural parts. Facilities of Pre-vocational and vocational training programmes are provided by very limited specialized institutions.
DEPRIVATION OF RIGHTS OF DISABLED Discrimination � The uniform society cannot see people with differences without discrimination. There is lot of disgrace attached to disability. � The other discrimination faced by them is in terms of access to places. Public buildings, public transport system and other places of importance are not accessible to them. � The employment opportunities available to them are also very low. They suffer the triple jeopardy of: disabled, poor and disgraced.
DEPRIVATION OF RIGHTS OF DISABLED Attitudinal Problems: The attitude of the society is disability insensitive. They relate disabled with their disabilities rather than their abilities. Such behaviour violates the right of disabled to live with dignity. Lack of proper Rehabilitation Care: Rehabilitation of Disabled can be done in various ways, such as: vocational rehabilitation (preparing them for jobs), educational services, in home support, child services (to help them grow) and Residential living arrangements etc. Such rehabilitation care programmes are not easily available to the Disabled people.