Disability Rights National Disability Rights Network By Federal

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Disability Rights

Disability Rights

National Disability Rights Network • By Federal Law every state must have a Disability

National Disability Rights Network • By Federal Law every state must have a Disability Law Center which provides free consultation on disability laws in the schools and work. The website on the right will direct you to the center in your state. • www. ndrw. org

Reading Disorder/Dyslexia

Reading Disorder/Dyslexia

National Dyslexia Research The NICHD Research Program in Reading Development, Disorders and Instruction Lyon,

National Dyslexia Research The NICHD Research Program in Reading Development, Disorders and Instruction Lyon, G. R. (March 5, 2009). The NICHD Research Program in Reading Development, Disorders and Instruction. National Center for learning Disabilities. From website: http: //www. ncld. org/ld-basics/ld-aamplanguage/reading/the-nichd-research-program-in -reading-development-reading-disorders-andreading-instruction

How To Help Those With Dyslexia To Reading National Reading Panel of government funded

How To Help Those With Dyslexia To Reading National Reading Panel of government funded experts released a report to United States Congress (April 13, 2000) – Reviewed over 100, 000 reading research articles published since 1966 – 10 to 15 percent of dyslexics will drop out of high school. All Rights Reserved Kevin T. Blake, Ph. D. 5

How to Help Those With Dyslexia To Read National Reading Panel – First teach

How to Help Those With Dyslexia To Read National Reading Panel – First teach phonemic awareness (rhyming, clapping out word sounds, etc. ) – Second teach phonics (sound to symbol) – Third teach Whole Language – In this order with dyslexics National Reading Panel (4/13/2000). www. nichd. gov/publications/pubs/readbro. htm All Rights Reserved Kevin T. Blake, Ph. D. 6

Multisensory Teaching Techniques • Orton-Gillingham Approach • Alphabetic Phonics • Association Method • Language!

Multisensory Teaching Techniques • Orton-Gillingham Approach • Alphabetic Phonics • Association Method • Language! • Lexia-Herman Method • Lindamood-Bell All Rights Reserved International Dyslexia Association (2005). Framework for Informed Reading and Language Instruction: Matrix of Multisensory Structured Language Programs. Baltimore, MD: International Dyslexia Association. Kevin T. Blake, Ph. D. 7

Multisensory Teaching Techniques (Continued) • • Project Read Slingerland Sonday System Sounds in Symbols

Multisensory Teaching Techniques (Continued) • • Project Read Slingerland Sonday System Sounds in Symbols Spalding Method Starting Over Wilson Foundations & Wilson Reading All Rights Reserved International Dyslexia Association (2005). Framework for Informed Reading and Language Instruction: Matrix of Multisensory Structured Language Programs. Baltimore, MD: International Dyslexia Association. Kevin T. Blake, Ph. D. 8

The “Dyslexia bd pq Phenomenon” “When children learn to read they must “unlearn” mirror

The “Dyslexia bd pq Phenomenon” “When children learn to read they must “unlearn” mirror generalization in order to process ‘b’ and ‘d’ as distinct letters. In some children, this unlearning process, which goes against the spontaneous abilities inherited from evolution, seems to present a specific source of impairment. ” (p. 253) Dehaene, S. (2009). Reading in the Brain: The New Science of How We Read. New York, NY: Penguin.

The “Dyslexia bd pq Phenomenon” “Mirror writing occurs in all cultures, including China and

The “Dyslexia bd pq Phenomenon” “Mirror writing occurs in all cultures, including China and Japan. It appears for a short period of time at the age when children first begin to write, and then it promptly vanishes. Unless this phenomenon extends beyond the ages of eight to ten, there is no cause for alarm. At this age, mirror errors are indeed more frequent in dyslexic children, though they can disappear later. ” (p. 265) Dehaene, S. (2009). Reading in the Brain: The New Science of How We Read. New York, NY: Penguin.

Mathematics Disorder and Anxiety

Mathematics Disorder and Anxiety

Mathematics “Unlike reading, which needs to be taught, children have a biologically based propensity

Mathematics “Unlike reading, which needs to be taught, children have a biologically based propensity to acquire arithmetic skills (eg, counting, adding, and comparing and understanding quantities) without formal schooling. Interestingly, the computational basis for numeric abilities is not exclusive to Homo Sapiens and has been demonstrated in monkeys as well. ” (p. 766) Infants can tell small quantities from large ones. Shalev, R. S. (October, 2004). Developmental Dyscalculia. Journal of Child Neurology, 19 (10), pp. 765 -771. All Rights Reserved Kevin T. Blake, Ph. D. , P. L. C. 12

Mathematics Disorder “Unlike reading, math is a discipline. It is the only discipline that

Mathematics Disorder “Unlike reading, math is a discipline. It is the only discipline that is taught kindergarten through 12 th grade. It is varied (think of measurement, geometry, data analysis, algebra, and rational numbers), cumulative in nature, and as you move across grade levels, it becomes increasingly complex. ” (p. 10) Woodward, J. P. (Spring, 2008). Theme Editor’s Summary - Dialogue is Important: Language in Mathematics Classrooms. Perspectives, 24 (2), p. 9 -10. All Rights Reserved Kevin T. Blake, Ph. D. , P. L. C. 13

Mathematics Disorder • Today as students advance in grades they are expected to be

Mathematics Disorder • Today as students advance in grades they are expected to be able to use and understand the vocabulary of mathematics more and more. Many students have difficulty with math vocabulary; especially those with Learning Disorders. Woodward, J. P. (Spring, 2008). Theme Editor’s Summary - Dialogue is Important: Language in Mathematics Classrooms. Perspectives, 24 (2), p. 9 -10. All Rights Reserved Kevin T. Blake, Ph. D. , P. L. C. 14

What Math Involves “Any successful execution of math competencies requires the person is attentive,

What Math Involves “Any successful execution of math competencies requires the person is attentive, organized, able to switch sets, and work quickly enough to avoid overloading working memory stores that retain information needed for on-line access of different kinds of information. ” (p. 210) Fletcher, J. M. , Lyon, G. Reid, Fuchs, L. S. , and Barnes, M. A. (2007). Learning Disabilities: From Identification to Intervention. New York, NY: Guilford. All Rights Reserved Kevin T. Blake, Ph. D. , P. L. C. 15

What Math Involves “Mathematics involves computation, itself the product of knowledge and retrieval of

What Math Involves “Mathematics involves computation, itself the product of knowledge and retrieval of facts, and application of procedural knowledge. Problem solving, particularly solving word problems, involves computation, language, reasoning, and reading skills and perhaps visual-spatial skills as well. ” (p. 210) Fletcher, J. M. , Lyon, G. Reid, Fuchs, L. S. , and Barnes, M. A. (2007). Learning Disabilities: From Identification to Intervention. New York, NY: Guilford. All Rights Reserved Kevin T. Blake, Ph. D. , P. L. C. 16

Mathematical Intuition • What is Mathematical Intuition? – Even in elementary arithmetic multiple cognitive

Mathematical Intuition • What is Mathematical Intuition? – Even in elementary arithmetic multiple cognitive areas are used for different tasks. – Exact arithmetic uses specific language areas in the left inferior frontal lobe which generates associations between words. – Symbolic arithmetic was dependent on improvement of number notations and is a cultural invention specific to humans. Dehaene, S. , Spelke, E. , Pinel, P. , Stanescu, R. , and Tsivkin, S. (May 7, 1999). Sources of Mathematical Thinking: Behavioral and Brain-Imaging Evidence. Science, 284, pp. 970 -974. All Rights Reserved Kevin T. Blake, Ph. D. , P. L. C. 17

Mathematical Intuition – Approximate arithmetic relies on non-verbal quantity representation implemented in visual-spatial areas

Mathematical Intuition – Approximate arithmetic relies on non-verbal quantity representation implemented in visual-spatial areas of the right and left parietal lobes. – It is possible this non-verbal representational numeral quantifying ability has a long evolutionary history dating back to pre-humans. Dehaene, S. , Spelke, E. , Pinel, P. , Stanescu, R. , and Tsivkin, S. (May 7, 1999). Sources of Mathematical Thinking: Behavioral and Brain-Imaging Evidence. Science, 284, pp. 970 -974. All Rights Reserved Kevin T. Blake, Ph. D. , P. L. C. 18

Number Sense • Number Sense “Gersten wrote, “Number sense is an emerging construct…that refers

Number Sense • Number Sense “Gersten wrote, “Number sense is an emerging construct…that refers to a child’s fluidity and flexibility with numbers, the sense of what numbers mean and an ability to perform mental mathematics and to look at the world and make comparisons. ” (p. 3) Gersten, R. (1999). Number Sense: Rethinking Arithmetic Instruction for Students with Mathematical Disabilities. Journal of Special Education, 44, pp. 18 -28. /From website: http: //www. ldonline. org/ld_indepth/math_skills/gersten_dyscalculia. html (July 11, 2002). All Rights Reserved Kevin T. Blake, Ph. D. , P. L. C. 19

Number Sense “Children who start elementary school with difficulty associating small exact quantities of

Number Sense “Children who start elementary school with difficulty associating small exact quantities of items with the printed numerals that represent those quantities are more likely to develop a math related learning disability than are their peers, according to a study supported by the National Institutes of Health”. NIH/National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (2011, October 24). Math disability linked to problem relating quantities to numerals. Science. Daily. Retrieved November 1, 2011, from http: //www. sciencedaily. com /releases/2011/10/111024165553. htm

Number Sense • Dr. David Geary stated, “Our findings suggest that children who generally

Number Sense • Dr. David Geary stated, “Our findings suggest that children who generally struggle with math -- the low achievers -- may have a poor sense of numbers, but they can narrow the achievement gap in part because most of them can memorize new math facts and, thus, learn some aspects of math as quickly as their typically achieving peers”. NIH/National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (2011, October 24). Math disability linked to problem relating quantities to numerals. Science. Daily. Retrieved November 1, 2011, from http: //www. sciencedaily. com /releases/2011/10/111024165553. htm

Number Sense “Dr. Geary added that, in contrast to the low achievers, students with

Number Sense “Dr. Geary added that, in contrast to the low achievers, students with a math learning disability not only have a poor concept of numbers, but also have difficulty memorizing math facts”. NIH/National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (2011, October 24). Math disability linked to problem relating quantities to numerals. Science. Daily. Retrieved November 1, 2011, from http: //www. sciencedaily. com /releases/2011/10/111024165553. htm

Number Sense David C. Geary, Mary K. Hoard, Lara Nugent, Drew H. Bailey. Mathematical

Number Sense David C. Geary, Mary K. Hoard, Lara Nugent, Drew H. Bailey. Mathematical cognition deficits in children with learning disabilities and persistent low achievement: A five year prospective study. . Journal of Educational Psychology, 2011; DOI: 10. 1037/a 0025398

Mathematics Anxiety Students with Math Anxiety can learn to perform almost just as well

Mathematics Anxiety Students with Math Anxiety can learn to perform almost just as well as students without Math Anxiety if they learn to activate their The frontal and Parietal areas of the brain while problem solving. These areas help the anxious student control their negative emotions about math and hence allow them to perform cognitively better. Thus work on controlling negative cognitions associated with math would be helpful along with teaching math. Sparks, S. (October 20, 2011). Brain Points to Potential Treatments for Math Anxiety. . Inside School Research (Blog), From : Education Week. From Website: : http: //blogs. edweek. org/edweek/inside school research/2011/10/brain_study_points_to_potentia. html Lyons, I. M. , and Beilock, S. L. (October 20, 2011). Mathematics Anxiety: Separating The Math Form The Anxiety. Cerbral Cortex, doi: 10. 1093/cercor/bhr 289.

Your Tax Dollars at Work THE RESEARCH PROGRAM IN MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE COGNITION AND

Your Tax Dollars at Work THE RESEARCH PROGRAM IN MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE COGNITION AND LEARNING DEVELOPMENT AND DISORDERS All Rights Reserved Kevin T. Blake, Ph. D. , P. L. C. 25

Mathematics and Science Cognition and Learning: Development and Disorders (MSCL) Program • Originally known

Mathematics and Science Cognition and Learning: Development and Disorders (MSCL) Program • Originally known as: • THE RESEARCH PROGRAM IN MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE COGNITION AND LEARNING DEVELOPMENT DISORDERS • Your Tax Dollars at Work! • http: //www. nichd. nih. gov/about/org/crmc/ cdb/prog_mscld/index. cfm

Your Tax Dollars At Work • • • Study the biology and genetics of

Your Tax Dollars At Work • • • Study the biology and genetics of math learning Longitudinal study of number estimation Study Subtypes of Math Disorders Study normative development of math abilities Study Classroom interventions for those with AD/HD, Reading Disorder, Turner Syndrome, Fragile X, Williams Syndrome and Mathematics Disorder Lyon, G. R. (March 25, 2004). United States Department of Health and Human Services. Testimony on Headstart before the Subcommittee on Labor, HHS, & Education and Related Agencies. Committee on Appropriations, U. S. House of Representatives: www. hhs. gov/asl/testify/t 040325. html. All Rights Reserved Kevin T. Blake, Ph. D. , P. L. C. 27

THE RESEARCH PROGRAM IN MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE COGNITION AND LEARNING DEVELOPMENT AND DISORDERS •

THE RESEARCH PROGRAM IN MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE COGNITION AND LEARNING DEVELOPMENT AND DISORDERS • Research into etiology, classification, diagnosis, prevention, treatment, genetics, longitudinal aspects and comorbidity of Mathematics Disorders • Daniel B. Berch, Ph. D. : berchd [email protected] nih. gov www. nichd. nih. gov/CRMC/cdb/math. htm#interest All Rights Reserved Kevin T. Blake, Ph. D. , P. L. C. 28

Mathematics Disorder: Prevalence • 3 to 5% have Mathematics Disorder • There is an

Mathematics Disorder: Prevalence • 3 to 5% have Mathematics Disorder • There is an equal number of males and females who have it. • ¼ of those with Dyslexia and ¼ with AD/HD have Mathematics Disorder. • Those with Reading Disorder-Dyslexia and Mathematics Disorder are the most impaired. Shalev, R. S. (October, 2004). Developmental Dyscalculia. Journal of Child Neurology, 19 (10), pp. 765 -771. All Rights Reserved Kevin T. Blake, Ph. D. , P. L. C. 29

Number Sense “Much of math ability is learned, but it’s quite possible that an

Number Sense “Much of math ability is learned, but it’s quite possible that an inborn factor influences both the understanding of quantities as well as makes learning math easier for some people. This study doesn’t imply or prove that math abilities aren’t learned, ” Mazzocco said. Author (June 17, 2011). Difficulty Estimating Quantity Linked to Math Learning Disability. National Instute of Health News. From website: http: //www. nichd. nih. gov/news/releases/061711 math disabilities test. cfm

Math Learning Disorder=Problems With “Number Sense” “Many children have significant mathematical learning disabilities (MLD,

Math Learning Disorder=Problems With “Number Sense” “Many children have significant mathematical learning disabilities (MLD, or dyscalculia) despite adequate schooling. We hypothesize that MLD partly results from a deficiency in the Approximate Number System (ANS) that supports nonverbal numerical representations across species and throughout development. Here we show that ninth grade students with MLD have significantly poorer ANS precision than students in all other mathematics achievement groups (low , typical , and high achieving), as measured by psychophysical assessments of ANS acuity (w) and of the mappings between ANS representations and number words (covar). This relationship persists even when controlling for domain-general abilities. Furthermore, this ANS precision does not differentiate low- from typical-achieving students, suggesting an ANS deficit”. Mazzocco, M. M. , Feigenson, L. and Halberda, J (In Press) Impaired acuity of the approximate number system underlies mathematical learning disability. Child Development. From website: http: //www. psy. jhu. edu/~halberda/publications/MLD_ANS_final. pdf

Math Learning Disorder=Problems With “Number Sense” Michèle Mazzocco, Ph. D. , whose research was

Math Learning Disorder=Problems With “Number Sense” Michèle Mazzocco, Ph. D. , whose research was funded by the NIH’s NICHD found that children with mathematics disorder/dyscalculia had the worst number estimation scores. About 10% of children have persistent problems with math. Poor number sense appear to be the core difficulty of those with dyscalculia, but not those who are low math achievers as a whole. Author (June 17, 2011). Difficulty Estimating Quantity Linked to Math Learning Disability. National Instute of Health News. From website: http: //www. nichd. nih. gov/news/releases/061711 math disabilities test. cfm

Number Sense Dehaene, S. (2011). The Number Sense, Revised and Updated Edition. New York,

Number Sense Dehaene, S. (2011). The Number Sense, Revised and Updated Edition. New York, NY: Oxford.

Your Tax Dollars At Work National Mathematics Advisory Panel Final Report: March 13, 2008

Your Tax Dollars At Work National Mathematics Advisory Panel Final Report: March 13, 2008 All Rights Reserved Kevin T. Blake, Ph. D. , P. L. C. 34

National Mathematics Advisory Panel Final Report: March 13, 2008 “This report represents the first

National Mathematics Advisory Panel Final Report: March 13, 2008 “This report represents the first comprehensive analysis of math education to be based on sound science…The National Math Advisory Panel’s findings and recommendations make very clear what must be done to help our children succeed in math. We must teach number and math concepts early, we must help our students believe they can improve their math skills and we must insure… All Rights Reserved Kevin T. Blake, Ph. D. , P. L. C. 35

National Mathematics Advisory Panel Final Report: March 13, 2008 …they fully comprehend algebra concepts

National Mathematics Advisory Panel Final Report: March 13, 2008 …they fully comprehend algebra concepts by the time they graduate high school. The Panel’s work will benefit generations of American students. ” (Margaret Spellings, U. S. Secretary of Education, March 13, 2008) Spellings, M. (March 13, 2008). U. S. Secretary of Education Margaret Spellings Highlights Findings of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel (Press Release). From: http: //www. ed. gov/news/pressrelease/2008/03/03132008. html All Rights Reserved Kevin T. Blake, Ph. D. , P. L. C. 36

National Mathematics Advisory Panel Final Report: March 13, 2008 • Testimony of over 200

National Mathematics Advisory Panel Final Report: March 13, 2008 • Testimony of over 200 scientists • Over 150 organizations involved • Reviewed over 16, 000 research studies Spellings, M. (March 13, 2008). U. S. Secretary of Education Margaret Spellings Highlights Findings of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel (Press Release). From: http: //www. ed. gov/news/pressrelease/2008/03/03132008. html All Rights Reserved Kevin T. Blake, Ph. D. , P. L. C. 37

National Mathematics Advisory Panel Final Report: March 13, 2008 • Needs of Math Students:

National Mathematics Advisory Panel Final Report: March 13, 2008 • Needs of Math Students: – Rapid recall of arithmetic facts in elementary school – Mastering fractions in middle school – Rigorous algebra instruction in high school – The algebra instruction is most important to insure good college and career success. Spellings, M. (March 13, 2008). U. S. Secretary of Education Margaret Spellings Highlights Findings of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel (Press Release). From: http: //www. ed. gov/news/pressrelease/2008/03/03132008. html All Rights Reserved Kevin T. Blake, Ph. D. , P. L. C. 38

National Mathematics Advisory Panel Final Report: March 13, 2008 “There is not a sufficient

National Mathematics Advisory Panel Final Report: March 13, 2008 “There is not a sufficient number of studies with children of various ages and grades to draw strong conclusions about schooling and mathematical development, but the research that has been conducted thus far suggests a similar pattern, that is, decreased involvement of the prefrontal/working memory regions and increased involvement of the angular gyrus with increasing grade level and mathematical experience”. Author (March 8, 2008). DRAFT Task Group Reports of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel: Report of the Task Group on Learning Processes. From: http: //www. ed. gov/about/bdscomm/list/mathpanel/report/learning-processes. pdf All Rights Reserved Kevin T. Blake, Ph. D. , P. L. C. 39

National Mathematics Advisory Panel Final Report: March 13, 2008 • Between 5 to 10

National Mathematics Advisory Panel Final Report: March 13, 2008 • Between 5 to 10 percent of students will be identified as having a Math LD before finishing high school. • Most of the research on Math LD has been conducted with elementary aged children. Author (March 13, 2008). DRAFT Task Group Reports of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel: Report of the Task Group on Instructional Practices. From: http: //www. ed. gov/about/bdscomm/list/mathpanel/report/ip. pdf All Rights Reserved Kevin T. Blake, Ph. D. , P. L. C. 40

National Mathematics Advisory Panel Final Report: March 13, 2008 • Several “chronic” Math LDs:

National Mathematics Advisory Panel Final Report: March 13, 2008 • Several “chronic” Math LDs: – Inefficient retrieval of math facts – Inefficient counting strategies (i. e. , do not use “countingon strategies”) – Limited Working Memory Problems – Problems with Number Sense • Can’t quickly visualize number lines for magnitude comparison and transforming word problems into equations Author (March 13, 2008). DRAFT Task Group Reports of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel: Report of the Task Group on Instructional Practices. From: http: //www. ed. gov/about/bdscomm/list/mathpanel/report/ip. pdf All Rights Reserved Kevin T. Blake, Ph. D. , P. L. C. 41

National Mathematics Advisory Panel Final Report: March 13, 2008 • Contributions to Low Math

National Mathematics Advisory Panel Final Report: March 13, 2008 • Contributions to Low Math Achievement: – Deficient math instruction – Limited informal math teaching in the home – Problems with sustained mental effort (i. e. , AD/HD, etc. ) – Weak motivation Author (March 13, 2008). DRAFT Task Group Reports of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel: Report of the Task Group on Instructional Practices. From: http: //www. ed. gov/about/bdscomm/list/mathpanel/report/ip. pdf All Rights Reserved Kevin T. Blake, Ph. D. , P. L. C. 42

National Mathematics Advisory Panel Final Report: March 13, 2008 • Explicit Instruction for Math

National Mathematics Advisory Panel Final Report: March 13, 2008 • Explicit Instruction for Math LD: “Explicit instruction involves step-by-step plans for solving a problem. The teacher demonstrates a specific plan for a set of problems (as opposed to a general problem-solving heuristic strategy) and students are asked to use the same procedures/steps demonstrated by the teacher to solve the problem. ” (p. 4 -69) Author (March 13, 2008). DRAFT Task Group Reports of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel: Report of the Task Group on Instructional Practices. From: http: //www. ed. gov/about/bdscomm/list/mathpanel/report/ip. pdf All Rights Reserved Kevin T. Blake, Ph. D. , P. L. C. 43

National Mathematics Advisory Panel Final Report: March 13, 2008 “Generally, clear consistent modeling of

National Mathematics Advisory Panel Final Report: March 13, 2008 “Generally, clear consistent modeling of step-by-step strategies through teacher explanation, modeling and demonstration; planful sequencing of teaching and practice examples; and specified procedures for providing corrective feedback characterize explicit systematic instruction…In addition, this set of studies also demonstrates how explicit instruction has evolved over time to incorporate more innovative instructional features that support and encourage interaction, flexibility, and generalization. ” (p. 4 -73) Author (March 13, 2008). DRAFT Task Group Reports of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel: Report of the Task Group on Instructional Practices. From: http: //www. ed. gov/about/bdscomm/list/mathpanel/report/ip. pdf All Rights Reserved Kevin T. Blake, Ph. D. , P. L. C. 44

National Mathematics Advisory Panel Final Report: March 13, 2008 • Classroom strategies to help

National Mathematics Advisory Panel Final Report: March 13, 2008 • Classroom strategies to help those with MLD: – Concrete and visual representations – Explanations by teachers – Problem solving aloud; individually and as a group – Student group work – Carefully orchestrated practice and feedback – High but reasonable expectations Author (March 13, 2008). DRAFT Task Group Reports of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel: Report of the Task Group on Instructional Practices. From: http: //www. ed. gov/about/bdscomm/list/mathpanel/report/ip. pdf All Rights Reserved Kevin T. Blake, Ph. D. , P. L. C. 45

National Mathematics Advisory Panel Final Report: March 13, 2008 Educational Benchmarks: • By the

National Mathematics Advisory Panel Final Report: March 13, 2008 Educational Benchmarks: • By the end of 5 th Grade: – Multiplication and division of whole numbers – Comparing fractions, decimals and commonpercent plus: addition and subtraction of same – Solve problems related to perimeter and area of triangles and quadrilaterals having at least one pair of parallel sides Author (March 13, 2008). National Mathematics Advisory Panel: Final Report. From: http: //www. ed. gov/about/bdscomm/list/mathpanel/report/final-report. pdf All Rights Reserved Kevin T. Blake, Ph. D. , P. L. C. 46

National Mathematics Advisory Panel Final Report: March 13, 2008 • Benchmarks by the end

National Mathematics Advisory Panel Final Report: March 13, 2008 • Benchmarks by the end of 6 th Grade: – Multiplication of fractions and decimals – All operations with positive and negative integers – Analyze properties of two-dimensional shapes and solve problems of perimeter and area – Analyze properties of three-dimensional shapes and solve problems of surface area and volume Author (March 13, 2008). National Mathematics Advisory Panel: Final Report. From: http: //www. ed. gov/about/bdscomm/list/mathpanel/report/final-report. pdf All Rights Reserved Kevin T. Blake, Ph. D. , P. L. C. 47

National Mathematics Advisory Panel Final Report: March 13, 2008 • Benchmarks by the end

National Mathematics Advisory Panel Final Report: March 13, 2008 • Benchmarks by the end of 7 th Grade: – All operations of positive and negative fractions – Solve problems involving percent, ratio, and rate and extend this work to proportionality – Familiarity with the relationship between similar triangles and the concept of the slope of a line Author (March 13, 2008). National Mathematics Advisory Panel: Final Report. From: http: //www. ed. gov/about/bdscomm/list/mathpanel/report/final-report. pdf All Rights Reserved Kevin T. Blake, Ph. D. , P. L. C. 48

Autism Spectrum Disorder and William’s Syndrome

Autism Spectrum Disorder and William’s Syndrome

AD/HD and ASD • 26% of children with PDD NOS, or ASD have comorbid

AD/HD and ASD • 26% of children with PDD NOS, or ASD have comorbid Combined Type AD/HD • 33% of children with PDD NOS, or ASD have Comorbid Inattentive AD/HD • 59% of Children with PDD NOS, or ASD have some type of AD/HD Goldstein, S. , and Naglieri, J. A. (August, 2011). Neurocognitive and Behavioral Characteristics of children with ADHD and Autism: New Data and Strategies. The ADHD Report, 19(4), 10 12, 16.

ASD and Genetics “We propose an explanation that links these two types of families:

ASD and Genetics “We propose an explanation that links these two types of families: sporadic autism in the low risk families is mainly caused by spontaneous mutation with high penetrance in males and relatively poor penetrance in females; and high risk families are from those offspring, most often females, who carry a new causative mutation but are unaffected and in turn transmit the mutation in dominant fashion to their offspring. (p. 12831). Zhao, X. , et al (July 31, 2007). Unified Genetic Theory for Sporadic and Genetic Autism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104(31), 12831 12836.

ASD and Genetics “Autism is among the most clearly genetically determined of all cognitive

ASD and Genetics “Autism is among the most clearly genetically determined of all cognitive developmental disorders, with males affected more often than females” (p. 12831) Zhao, X. , et al (July 31, 2007). Unified Genetic Theory for Sporadic and Genetic Autism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104(31), 12831 12836.

ASD and Genetics Females have more resistance to the genetic form of autism than

ASD and Genetics Females have more resistance to the genetic form of autism than males. Levy, D. , et al (June 9, 2011). Rare De Novo and Transmitted Copy Number Variation in Autistic Spectrum Disorders. Neuron, 70(5), 886 897. Gilman, S. R. , et al (June 9, 2011). Rare De Novo Variants Associated with Autism Implicate a Large Functional Network of Genes Involved in Formation and Function of Synapses, Neuron, 70(5), 898 907.

ASD and Genetics A network of hundreds of genetic mutations may account for Autism.

ASD and Genetics A network of hundreds of genetic mutations may account for Autism. Gilman, S. R. , et al (June 9, 2011). Rare De Novo Variants Associated with Autism Implicate a Large Functional Network of Genes Involved in Formation and Function of Synapses, Neuron, 70(5), 898 907.

ASD and Neurology “Our data provide the first anatomical evidence of an abnormal amygdala

ASD and Neurology “Our data provide the first anatomical evidence of an abnormal amygdala fusiform system and its behavioral relevance to face processing deficits in autism spectrum conditions. In light of recent evidence of the involvement of the fusiform gyrus and amygdala in social perception as well as the areas of social cognition and emotional awareness, all of which are relevant to autism, our findings might represent a core pathophysiological mechanism of autism” (p. 397). Dziobek, I, Bahneman, M. Convit, A. , and Heekeren, H. R. (April, 2010). The Role of The Fusiform Amygdala System In The Pathophysiology of Autism. Archieves of General Psychiatry, 67(4), 397 405.

Williams Syndrome and Neurology We found that the FFA was approximately two times larger

Williams Syndrome and Neurology We found that the FFA was approximately two times larger among WS (Williams Sundrome, sic. ) than TD (Typically Developing, sic. ) participants (both absolutely and relative to the fusiform gyrus), despite apparently normal levels of face recognition performance on a Benton face recognition test. Thus, a larger FFA (Fusiform Face Area, sic) may play a role in face recognition proficiency among WS. Golarai, G. , et al (May 12, 2010). The Fusiform Face Area is Enlarged in Williams Syndrome. Journal of Neuroscience, 30(19), 6700 6712.

ASD and Williams Syndrome “We speculate that the WS (Williams Syndrome, sic) problems lie

ASD and Williams Syndrome “We speculate that the WS (Williams Syndrome, sic) problems lie not in their difficulty to process eyes per se, but in their problems with interpreting the social meaning of the eyes, implicating dysfunction of the amygdala circuit. Finally, our results lead us to question a prevailing view that WS and autism are situated at opposite ends of the continuum with respect to social cognition”(p. 288) Tsirempolou, E. , et al (November 15, 2006). Understanding the Social Meaning of the Eyes: Is Williams Syndrome So Different From Autism? World Journal of Pediatrics, 2(4), 288 296.

ASD and Williams Syndrome, “two sides of the same coin, ” Allan Reiss Stanford

ASD and Williams Syndrome, “two sides of the same coin, ” Allan Reiss Stanford Medical School professor said. Social behavior and communication are underdeveloped in ASD and overdeveloped in Williams Syndrome. Inman, E. (May 20, 2010). New Findings About Williams Syndrome May Shed Light On Autism Research. The Stanford Daily. From website: http: //www. stanforddaily. com/2010/05/20/new findings about williams syndrome may shine light on autism research/.

ASD and Williams Syndrome Reiss states those with ASD have smaller and less right

ASD and Williams Syndrome Reiss states those with ASD have smaller and less right fusiform gyrus face form areas (Rt. FFA) than the norm and those with Williams Syndrome larger Rt. FFA than the norm. He speculates the same gene may be involved in both disorders, but different mutations account for the behavioral differences. Inman, E. (May 20, 2010). New Findings About Williams Syndrome May Shed Light On Autism Research. The Stanford Daily. From website: http: //www. stanforddaily. com/2010/05/20/new findings about williams syndrome may shine light on autism research/.

ASD and Williams Syndrome Those with Williams Syndrome have a deletion of the 7

ASD and Williams Syndrome Those with Williams Syndrome have a deletion of the 7 q 11. 23 area of their genome that makes them highly sociable. Those with ASD have a duplication of the 7 q 11. 23 area and have severe social deficits. Sanders, S. et al (June 9, 2011). Multiple Recurrent De Novo CNVs, Including Duplications of the 7 q 11. 23 Williams Syndrome Region, Are Strongly Associated with Autism. Neuron, 70(5), 863 865.

ASD and Williams Syndrome “Hypothetically, the gene may affect how infants learn the context

ASD and Williams Syndrome “Hypothetically, the gene may affect how infants learn the context for facial interactions. One version could cause excessive social drive resulting in behavior characteristic to Williams syndrome, while a different version could cause an “abnormally decreased drive to interact with people which might serve as a basis for how some people come to develop autism, ” Reiss said. ” Inman, E. (May 20, 2010). New Findings About Williams Syndrome May Shed Light On Autism Research. The Stanford Daily. From website: http: //www. stanforddaily. com/2010/05/20/new findings about williams syndrome may shine light on autism research/.

Dogs and Williams Syndrome Changes in the WBSCR 17 Gene Caused Grey Wolves to

Dogs and Williams Syndrome Changes in the WBSCR 17 Gene Caused Grey Wolves to Become Dogs and Humans to Have Williams Syndrome. von. Holdt, B. M. , et al (March 17, 2010). Genome Wide SNP and Haplotype Analyses Reveal A Rich History Underlying Domestication. Nature, doi: 10. 1038/nature 08837. Ratliff, E. (March, 2011). Taming The Wild. National Geographic. From website: http: //ngm. nationalgeographic. com/2011/03/taming wild animals/ratliff text/1

ADHD

ADHD

Barkley on Hyperactive/Impulsive ADHD “The HI-Type (Hyperactive/Impulsive Type ADHD, sic. ) is apparently a

Barkley on Hyperactive/Impulsive ADHD “The HI-Type (Hyperactive/Impulsive Type ADHD, sic. ) is apparently a milder or earlier stage of the C-Type (Combined Type ADHD, sic. ), most commonly Identified in preschool age children” (p. 1). Barkley, R. A. (October, 2011). Sluggish Cognitive Temp Is a Distinct Disorder from ADHD in Adults. The ADHD Report, 19(5), 1 6.