- Slides: 57
DISABILITIES Jaclyn Davies Nicole Garza Mackenzie Hull Starlet Taylor
WHAT IS A DISABILITY? A disability is a physical or mental condition that limits a person’s movement, senses, or activities.
MISCONCEPTIONS (1) A person’s disability defines who they are as individuals.
TRUTH Individuals with disabilities are people first. Remember the slogan “Label Jars, Not People.
MISCONCEPTION (2) People with disabilities are sick and in constant pain.
TRUTH People with disabilities are like people without disabilities. People get sick on occasion or sometimes may be in pain. People with disabilities typically do not suffer or experience pain due to their condition.
MISCONCEPTION (3) People with disabilities are brave, courageous and inspirational for living with their disability.
TRUTH People with disabilities are often portrayed as superhuman or courageous as they triumph over adversity. George Covington, a writer who is blind, has said, “We’re seen as inspirational, and inspiration sells like hotcakes. My disability isn’t a burden: having to be so damned inspirational is. ”
MISCONCEPTION (4) People with disabilities are special and should be treated differently.
TRUTH The label of “special” in reference to a person with a disability does not convey equality. Expectations for success should not be underestimated to accommodate the “special” label that is associated with people with disabilities.
MISCONCEPTION (5) Disability is a personal tragedy and deserves our pity.
TRUTH Disability is often viewed as an unending burden. People with disabilities are often viewed as tragic figures whom society should pity. Disability does not mean a poor quality of life. It is often the negative attitudes of society and the lack of accessibility within the community that are the real tragedy.
MISCONCEPTION (6) People with disabilities are dependent and always need help.
TRUTH All of us may have difficulty doing some things and may require assistance. People with disabilities may require help on occasion; however, disability does not mean dependency. It is always a good strategy not to assume a person with a disability needs assistance. Just ask!
MISCONCEPTION (7) People with disabilities want to associate with each other.
TRUTH Relationships and friendships are a matter of personal choice. People with disabilities may share similar characteristics; however, it should not be assumed that everyone wants to associate or develop friendships with each other.
MISCONCEPTION (8) People are confined to their wheelchair.
TRUTH People with disabilities typically do not view themselves as “confined” to their wheelchair. In the same way, a person without a disability is not described as confined to their car. A wheelchair, like an automobile, is a form of mobility that contributes to a person’s independence.
MISCONCEPTION (9) People with disabilities are a one-dimensional group.
TRUTH People with disabilities reflect the same diversity that exists in the rest of society, including varying social, economic, cultural, family and educational characteristics. The viewpoints expressed by an individual with a disability are not representative of those of all people with disabilities.
MISCONCEPTION (10) People with disabilities cannot lead a full and productive life.
TRUTH People with disabilities are capable of fully participating in community life. The challenge is to focus on a person’s ability, not their limitations.
WHY MISCONCEPTIONS EXIST? §Misconceptions exist because of fear, lack of understanding, and/or because of prejudices. §Negative images are attached to disabilities, which causes discrimination.
CATEGORIES OF DISABILITIES Autism Deaf-blindness Deafness Developmental delay Emotional disturbance
DISABILITIES CONTINUED… Intellectual disability Multiple disabilities Orthopedic impairments Other health impairment Specific learning disability
DISABILITIES CONTINUED… Speech impairment Language impairment Traumatic Brain Injury Visual impairment Hearing impairment
STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES BY CATEGORY
AUTISM A developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction. Adversely affects a child’s educational performance.
BEST PRACTICES Try to minimize distractions in the classroom. Many students with autism have difficulty focusing with many activities occurring around them. Speak more clearly and literally when addressing students with autism to avoid frustration by the student. Provide clear schedules, expectations, and choices, and work hard to be consistent in the classroom.
DEAF-BLINDNESS Simultaneous hearing and visual impairments, the combination of which causes such severe communication and other developmental and educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for children with deafness or children with blindness.
BEST PRACTICE Provide an intervener (Facilitates access to environmental information usually gained through vision and hearing, but which is unavailable or incomplete to the individual who is deaf-blind. ) Provide predictable routine Provide collaborative partnerships Use a variety of expressive and receptive communication forms Allow extra time allowance Provide active engagement real-life activities
DEAFNESS A hearing impairment so severe that a child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification, that adversely affects adversely a child’s educational performance.
BEST PRACTICE Provide a variety of visual aids. Provide subtitles on media that is displayed/shown. Provide sign language interpreter.
DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY A delay in one or more of the following areas: physical development; cognitive development; communication; social or emotional development; or adaptive [behavioral] development.
BEST PRACTICE Consider best practices for the specific delay student may have. Once area is identified, provide a lot of practice in that area.
EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE A condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a child’s educational performance: (a) An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors. (b) An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers. (c) Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances. (d) A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression. (e) A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems. The term includes schizophrenia. The term does not apply to children who are socially maladjusted, unless it is determined that they have an emotional disturbance.
BEST PRACTICES Teachers should give students choices that they can live with. This gives students control of their actions in some way. Calmness is essential, especially when they become upset. Modeling appropriate behaviors and responses is a good idea so that expectations are clear. Teachers should include students in a selfmonitoring process so students can spot their own signs of becoming upset.
DEAFNESS An impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance but is not included under the definition of “deafness. ”
BEST PRACTICES Give students favorable seating in the classroom. This allows students to be closer to the teacher and allows an opportunity to lip read if necessary. Amplification systems or other types of technological assistance are options for students with limited hearing. Speaking clearly is also essential for these students.
INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY Significantly sub average general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently [at the same time] with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.
BEST PRACTICES Students with intellectual disabilities often need assistance developing skills in basic areas such as: communicating with others, dressing, cooking a meal, social skills, reading, and safety. Students with intellectual disabilities are often given the opportunity to spend time in a classroom that can focus on teaching these specific skills.
MULTIPLE DISABILITIES Simultaneous impairments (such as intellectual disability-blindness, intellectual disability-orthopedic impairment, etc. ), the combination of which causes such severe educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in a special education program solely for one of the impairments. The term does not include deaf-blindness.
BEST PRACTICE Identify what the multiple disabilities that student has and how severe they are. Implement best practices and provide support for the different disabilities the students may have. Make modifications. Consider assistance technology. Allow partial participation, as necessary. Encourage student independence.
ORTHOPEDIC IMPAIRMENT A severe orthopedic impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term includes impairments caused by a congenital anomaly, impairments caused by disease (e. g. , poliomyelitis, bone tuberculosis), and impairments from other causes (e. g. , cerebral palsy, amputations, and fractures or burns that cause contractures).
BEST PRACTICES Students with orthopedic impairments have difficulty with physically moving. These students may be in wheelchairs, have walkers, or need other forms of assisted transportation. Teachers can ensure that the room is set up in a way that is easy for students to move freely and safely.
OTHER HEALTH IMPAIRMENT Having limited strength, vitality, or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli, that results in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment, that— (a) is due to chronic or acute health problems such as asthma, attention deficit disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, diabetes, epilepsy, a heart condition, hemophilia, lead poisoning, leukemia, nephritis, rheumatic fever, sickle cell anemia, and Tourette syndrome; and (b) adversely affects a child’s educational performance.
BEST PRACTICES Other health impairments includes a wide variety of disabilities. It’s important that teachers communicate with the students and their families in order to determine best practices for each unique student.
SPECIFIC LEARNING DISABILITY A disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations. The term includes such conditions as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia.
BEST PRACTICES Teachers should communicate their directions clearly and repeatedly to ensure students understand what is needed.
SPEECH AND LANGUAGE IMPAIRMENT A communication disorder such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.
BEST PRACTICE Students can be seated close to the teacher. Visual aids or personal written instructions are helpful to students. A system of signals to communicate with a child without needing to speak directly is an easy modification that can be put in place for students.
TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY An acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.
BEST PRACTICE Repetition of instructions, directions, and expectations are important. Visual displays are often helpful, and presenting information in various formats helps students with traumatic brain injuries. It’s also beneficial for these children to have a personal aid, or if not possible, preferential treatment in the classroom.
VISION IMPAIRMENT INCLUDING BLINDNESS An impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term includes both partial sight and blindness.
BEST PRACTICE Provide preferred seating options. Consider technology assistance. Provide student with an assistance when necessary/preferred. Notify student of changes in classroom arrangement. Allow student to familiarize themselves with the classroom arrangement. Speak clearly. Allow student to become autonomous (builds selfesteem). Avoid small print in distributed materials.
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