Direct VS Indirect speech Direct speech Mostly important
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Direct VS Indirect speech
Direct speech = “…” Mostly important for essay writing or research paper Watch a clip from “School of Rock” and see what you can find on Direct Speech
Indirect speech – Tense Direct Speech Present Simple She said: “It’s cold” Present Continuous She said: “I’m teaching English”. Present Perfect Simple She said: “I’ve been on the web since 2001” Present Perfect Continuous She said: “I’ve been teaching English for 7 years”. Past Simple She said: “I taught online yesterday”. Past Continuous She said: “I was teaching earlier” Past Perfect Indirect Speech Past Simple She said it was cold. Past Continuous She said she was teaching English Past Perfect Simple She said she had been on the web since 2001. Past Perfect Continuous She said she had been teaching for 7 years Past Perfect She said she had taught online yesterday. Past Perfect Continuous She said she had been teaching earlier. She said: “The lesson had already started when he arrived”. NO CHANGE Past Perfect Continuous NO CHANGE She said: “I’d already been teaching for 5 minutes”
Indirect speech - Modals Tense change also occurs for modals Direct speech Indirect speech Will: She said “I’ll teach English online Would: She said she would teach English online tomorrow”. tomorrow. Can Could Must Had to Shall Should may Might
Change From Direct To Indirect speech • “It’s too late”, said Carmen. • Carmen said it was too late. • Peter said: “I have replied” • Peter said he had replied • Sam said: “I met you yesterday”. • Sam said he had met me the day before. time reference also has to change! • Carl said: “I will pay tomorrow” • Carl said he would pay the next day.
Said or Told? If you change a sentence from Direct Indirect speech : pay attention to syntax • If the person speaking is not followed by Indirect Object (meewerkend voornaamwoord), we use ‘said’ in Indirect speech (we don’t know who we are talking to) • • E. g. Steve said (that) he was living in London Steve = He = subject Was living = verb In London = place • If the person speaking is followed by Indrect Object, we use ‘told’ in Indirect speech (we are talking to somebody). • • E. g. I told her not to worry. I = subject Her = Indirect object Not to worry = verbs