- Slides: 36
Direct and Indirect Speech
There what a are two ways to report person says: 1. Direct speech. 2. Indirect speech.
Direct Speech Ahmad said, “I am very busy”. We have given the exact words used by the speaker. This way of QuotingSpeechNarration is called Direct Speech. Such words are placed between inverted commas (‘…. . ’ or “……. ”) CHARACTERISTICS: § It is original quotation of a talk. § It is always placed between two quotation marks. § It is always preceded by Capital letter.
Indirect Speech Ahmad said that he was very busy. We have reported the idea, indirectly, without quoting the actual words of the speaker. This method is called indirect speech (sometimes called reported speech) CHARACTERISTICS: § In indirect speech we do not use the exact words of the speaker. § We sometimes need to change pronouns and verb tenses. § We don’t use speech marks.
He Said to me , “ I am waiting for my brother ”. Reporting Speech Reported Speech
Reported Speech it is the grammar we use when we want to tell another person about a conversation that took place in the past. We often use reported speech to. . . 1. Give someone a telephone message: Example: Sana said she couldn’t come today because she was busy. 2. Tell someone news that we heard from someone else: Example: Ali told me that he got engaged! 3. To report something that happened: Example: Sam said that the other driver wasn’t paying attention and hit his car.
How to use reported speech: When we use reported speech, we are talking about the past. usually Therefore, verbs usually change to the past tense in reported speech.
is / am are has / have can / can’t will / won’t becomes was were becomes had becomes couldn’t wouldn’t
In addition to the above changes, we have the following: Direct Speech Reported Speech This becomes That These becomes Those Now becomes Then
Change of Pronouns: All pronouns of 1 st person changes according to the subject of reported speech. e. g : She says to me, ” I recite the Holy Quran every day. ” She says to me that she recite the Holy Quran every day.
All pronouns of 2 nd person are changed according to the object of reporting speech. e. g : The teacher says to us , ” You are wasting your precious time. “ The teacher told to us that we are wasting our precious time.
All pronouns of 3 rd person remain unchanged. e. g : Ali says to me , ” She hates you. ” Ali says to me that she hates me.
Simple Sentences: He said, “I go to school every day. ” He said (that) he went to school every day. He said, “I live in Paris. " He said that he lived in Paris. She said, “I am cooking dinner. ” She said that she was cooking dinner. He said, “I have visited London twice. ” He said that he had visited London twice. He said, “I went to New York last week. ” He said that he had gone to New York the week before. He said, “I am going to find a new job. ” He said that he was going to find a new job.
Examples of reporting what someone said. . . Maria Said: “I’m not happy at my job now. I think I’ll quit. ” I talked to Maria yesterday. She was telling me about her job. Her job is quite stressful.
When we want to tell someone else what Maria said. In this situation, it’s natural to use reported speech: Maria said to me , “I am not happy at my job now”. Maria told me that she was not happy at her job then. • However, that is optional.
The following table shows other examples of such changes: Direct Speech Reported / Indirect Speech Today → that day / yesterday / on Wednesday, etc. Tomorrow → the next day /the following day /on Thursday , etc. Yesterday → the day before / the previous day / on Tuesday, etc. Next Month → the month after / the following month / in July, etc. Last Year → the year before / the previous year etc. A Week Ago → a week before / a week earlier, etc.
When a person told you something in the past tense, you can use either the past tense or the past perfect after the “said” phrase. Example: Ahmad said: OR “I worked really hard today. ” past tense past perfect tense
Types of Sentences: Simple. Interrogative. Imperative. Exclamatory.
Interrogative Sentences: There are two main kinds of interrogative sentences. 1. Those which start with a helping verb such as is, am, are. 2. Those which start with a question word such as what, why, when, where, how etc. Interrogative sentences beginning with a helping verb are changed into the indirect speech by using the connective if or whether.
The reporting verb said (or any other word used as the reporting verb) changes to asked. For example: o She said to me, ‘Are you coming with us? ’ She asked me if I was going with them. Question mark ‘? ’ is placed at the end of the sentence in Direct speech. Note that the helping verbs should, could, would, ought to and might do not change in the indirect speech.
In some sentences the object may be understood from the context and not expressed in the sentence. In such cases the object has to be supplied in the indirect speech. For Example: Direct: He said, ‘What do you want? ’ Indirect: He asked me what I wanted. Here the object me is understood from the context.
Interrogative Sentences: She said to me, ‘Are you unwell? ’ She asked me if I was unwell. I said to him, ‘Were you present at the meeting yesterday? ’ I asked him whether he had been present at the meeting the day before. The woman said to the stranger, ‘Should I help you? ’ The woman asked the stranger whether she should help him. I said to him, ‘Who are you? ’ I asked him who he was. The mother said to the daughter, ‘Do you know where Ali is? ’ The mother asked the daughter whether she knew where Ali was. The judge said to the lawyer, ‘Have you anything to say on behalf of the accused? ” The judge asked the lawyer if he had anything to say on behalf of the accused. The wolf said to the lamps, ‘Why are you all so sad? ’ The wolf asked the lamps why they were all so sad.
Imperative Sentences: A sentence which expresses CommandOrder Forbidding Request Advice or Suggestion is called imperative sentence
CommandOrder The sentences which expresses some Command or Order For Example: o He said to him, “open the door”. He ordered him to open the door. o They said to him, “do not tell a lie” They said to him not to tell a lie. OR They forbade him to tell a lie.
Request The sentences which expresses some requests. For Example: o He said to me, “please help me”. He requested me to help him. o The old woman said to the boy, ‘Please leave me alone. ’ The old woman requested the boy to leave her alone.
Advice or Suggestion The sentences which offers some Advice or Suggestion. For Example: o I said to him, ‘Love and obey your parents. ’ I advised him to love and obey his parents. o The teacher said to the students, ‘Work hard. ’ The teacher advised the students to work hard.
Imperative Sentences: o Jim said to me, ‘Please lend me your pen. ’ Jim requested me to lend him my pen. o The doctor said to the patient, ‘Quit smoking. ’ The doctor advised the patient to quit smoking. OR The doctor suggested that the patient should quit smoking. o The officer said to the clerk, ‘Do it immediately. ’ The officer ordered the clerk to do it immediately. o The teacher said to the boy, ‘Come in, please. ’ The teacher allowed (or asked) the boy to come in. o He said to me, ‘Post this letter at once. ’ He ordered me to post that letter at once.
Some other Examples: o I said to the children, ‘Do not make a noise. I forbade the children to make a noise. o I said to her, ‘Don’t mention his name. ’ I forbade her to mention his name. o He said to me, ‘Wait here till I return. ’ He asked me to wait there till he returned.
Exclamatory Sentences Exclamatory sentences express sudden emotions such as Joy Sorrow Contempt Regret Surprise etc.
Common explanatory phrases are given below: Hurrah! Ha! (Express joy) Alas! Oh! (Express sorrow, regret, or loss) Bravo! (Express Applause) What! Oh! How! (Express surprise) Pooh! Pshaw! (Express contempt) An exclamatory sentence has a sign of exclamation , which changes into a full stop in the indirect speech.
• In indirect speech, the exclamatory phrase or word (interjection) is replaced by Hurrah! Ha! exclaimed with joy. Alas! Oh! exclaimed with sorrow. What! Oh! How! exclaimed with wonder. The connective that has to be supplied in the indirect speech.
Exclamations normally become statements in indirect speech. They are often introduced by verbs like exclaim, remark, say, etc. Direct Speech 1. She said, “How lovely the house is!” 2. “What a strange idea!” he said. 3. Mary said, “How dreadful!”. Indirect Speech She remarked that the house was very lovely. He said that it was a very strange idea. Mary exclaimed that it was very dreadful.
Below are sentences of the type which you may find it difficult to turn into indirect speech. Direct Speech Indirect Speech 1. “Thank you”, he said He thanked me. 2. She said, “Welcome”. She welcomed me. 3. He said, “Happy Eid !” He wished me a happy Eid. 4. “Let’s go for a walk”. I said. I proposed (or : suggested) that we should go for a walk.
Exclamatory Sentences: The boy said, ‘Hurrah! We have won the match. ’ The boy exclaimed with joy that they had won the match. The old man said, ‘Alas! I have lost my purse. ’ The old man exclaimed with sorrow that he had lost his purse. The child said, ‘What a beautiful sight!’ The child exclaimed with delight that it was a very beautiful sight. OR The child exclaimed with delight that the sight was very beautiful. Kashif said, ‘How beautiful the girl is!’ Kashif exclaimed with delight that the girl was very beautiful. The students said to the teacher, ‘Good morning, Teacher!’ The students respectfully wished their teacher good morning.
Alice said, ‘How glad I am to meet my friend here. ’ Alice exclaimed with delight that she was very glad to meet her friend there. The Emperor said, ‘Alas! Our foes are too strong!’ The Emperor exclaimed with sorrow that their foes were too strong. ‘Hurrah!’ cried the boy, ‘I have won a prize. ’ The boy exclaimed with joy he had done a prize.
Thank You !