DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH DIRECT SPEECH Saying exactly
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DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH
DIRECT SPEECH Saying exactly what someone has said is called direct speech (sometimes called quoted speech) Here what a person says appears within quotation marks (". . . ") and should be word for word. For example: • She said, "Today's lesson is on presentations. " or • "Today's lesson is on presentations, " she said.
Indirect Speech / Reported Speech Indirect speech (sometimes called reported speech), doesn't use quotation marks to enclose what the person said and it doesn't have to be word for word. When reporting speech the tense usually changes. This is because when we use reported speech, we are usually talking about a time in the past (because obviously the person who spoke originally spoke in the past). The verbs therefore usually have to be in the past too. For example: • Direct speech- "I'm going to the school", he said. Indirect speech- He said he was going to the school.
TENSE CHANGE: As a rule when you report something someone has said you go back a tense.
DIRECT SPEECH Present simple She said, "It's cold. " Present continuous She said, "I'm teaching English online. " Present perfect simple She said, "I've been on the web since 1999. " Present perfect continuous She said, "I've been teaching English for seven years. " Past simple She said, "I taught online yesterday. " Past continuous She said, "I was teaching earlier. " Past perfect She said, "The lesson had already started when he arrived. " Past perfect continuous She said, "I'd already been teaching for five minutes. " INDIRECT SPEECH › › › › Past simple She said it was cold. Past continuous She said she was teaching English online. Past perfect simple She said she had been on the web since 1999. Past perfect continuous She said she had been teaching English for seven years. Past perfect She said she had taught online yesterday. Past perfect continuous She said she had been teaching earlier. Past perfect NO CHANGE - She said the lesson had already started when he arrived. Past perfect continuous NO CHANGE - She said she'd already been teaching for five minutes.
Modal verb forms also sometimes change: Direct speech will She said, "I'll teach English online tomorrow. " › can › She said, "I can teach English online. " must She said, "I must have a computer to › teach English online. " shall › She said, "What shall we learn today? " may › She said, "May I open a new browser? " Indirect speech would She said she would teach English online tomorrow. could She said she could teach English online had to She said she had to have a computer to teach English online. should She asked what we should learn today. might She asked if she might open a new browser. !Note - There is no change to; could, would, should, might and ought to. E. g. : "I might go to the cinema", he said. >>> He said he might go to the cinema.
• You can use the present tense in reported speech if you want to say that something is still true i. e. my name has always been and will always be Lynne so: • Direct speech: "My name is Lynne", she said. • Indirect speech: She said her name was Lynne. or She said her name is Lynne.
• You can also use the present tense if you are talking about a future event. Direct speech (exact quote) : "Next week's lesson is on reported speech ", she said. Indirect speech (not exact) : She said next week's lesson is on reported speech.
Time change • If the reported sentence contains an expression of time, you must change it to fit in with the time of reporting. For example we need to change words like here and yesterday if they have different meanings at the time and place of reporting. Today + 24 hours - Indirect speech "Today's lesson is on presentations. " She said yesterday's lesson was on presentations.
Time Matters: Expressions of time if reported on a different day this (evening) › that (evening) today › yesterday. . . these (days) › those (days) now › then (a week) ago › last weekend › here › (a week) before the weekend before last / the previous weekend there next (week) › the following (week) tomorrow › the next/following day
• In addition if you report something that someone said in a different place to where you heard it you must change the place (here) to the place (there). • For example: At work At home "How long have you worked She asked me how long I'd here? " worked there.
Pronoun change • In reported speech, the pronoun often changes. For example: Me You "I teach English online. " She said she teaches English online.
Reporting Verbs: Said, told and asked are the most common verbs used in indirect speech. • We use asked to report questions: For example: I asked Lynne what time the lesson started. • We use told with an object. For example: Lynne told me she felt tired. !Note - Here ‘me’ is the object. • We usually use said without an object. For example: Lynne said she was going to teach online.
• If said is used with an object we must include to ; For example: Lynne said to me that she'd never been to China. !Note - We usually use told. For example: Lynne told me that she'd never been to China. There are many other verbs we can use apart from said, told and asked. These include: accused, admitted, advised, alleged, agreed, apologized, begged, boasted, complained, denied, explained, implied, invited, offered, ordered, promised, replied, suggested and thought.
Contd. • Using them properly can make what you say much more interesting and informative. For example: • He asked me to come to the party: • He invited me to the party. • He begged me to come to the party. • He ordered me to come to the party. • He advised me to come to the party. • He suggested I should come to the party.
Use of 'That' in reported speech • In reported speech, the word that is often used. For example: He told me that he lived in Greenwich. • However, that is optional. For example: He told me he lived in Greenwich. Note - That is never used in questions, instead we often use if. For example: He asked me if I would come to the party.
• Colon (: ), Comma (, ) are placed before direct speech when the introductory verb position is in the front • Comma (, ) are placed after direct speech when the introductory verb position is placed after or between the direct speech
• The use of punctuation like exclamation mark (!), question mark (? ) that point type of sentence of direct speech do not change Eg. - ‘Where do you live? ’ she asked - She yelled at me: ‘Don’t have the door open!’
POSITIVE IMPERATIVE: DIRECT SPEECH She said, “Go away!” INDIRECT SPEECH She told me to go away She ordered her to go away “Come here!” she said. She asked him to come there She commended them to come there I said, “Be quite!” ‘Be quiet!’ she yelled at the children She begged, “Be happy!” ‘Please help me!’ she told him I begged us to be quite I suggested the children to be quite She ordered the children to be quiet She warned to be happy She asked him to help her
NEGATIVE IMPERATIVE: DIRECT SPEECH She said, “Don’t go away!” “Don’t Come here!” she said I said, “Don’t Be noisy!” INDIRECT SPEECH She told me not to go away She ordered her not to go away She asked him not to come there She commended them not to come there I begged us not to be noisy I suggested the children not to be noisy She warned us not to be lazy She begged, “Don’t be lazy!” ‘Don’t be lazy!’ she said She advised Laila not to be lazy to Laila She told him not to ‘Don’t worry about it!’ worry about it She said to him
Declarative (Statement) A. Pronoun and Possessive adjective DIRECT SPEECH I You My Our Your INDIRECT SPEECH He / She me/he/she/them/I/him/her his/her their/our My/his/her
Declarative (Statement) B. Adverb of time and Place DIRECT SPEECH • now • today • tomorrow • • • next INDIRECT SPEECH then that day the next day the day after the following day a day later the … after the following …
Declarative (Statement) B. Adverb of time and Place DIRECT SPEECH • last … • … ago • • yesterday • • the day before yesterday here this these those INDIRECT SPEECH the … before the previous … the preceding … … before … earlier the day before the previous day the preceeding day two days before there that
Declarative (Statement) C. Tenses • • DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH Present Simple Present Continuous Present Perfect Continuous Past Simple Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous
Let’s see the following changes DIRECT SPEECH • Verb 1 • Verb 2 • Is • Am • Are • Have • Has • Does • Was/were • Did INDIRECT SPEECH Verb 2 Had + Verb 3 was were had did had been had + verb 3
Let’s see the following changes DIRECT SPEECH • Can • May • Must • Shall • Will INDIRECT SPEECH could might had to should would
Let’s see the following changes DIRECT SPEECH • • • INDIRECT SPEECH Ought to + verb 1 Could + verb 1 Might + verb 1 Should + verb 1 Would + verb 1 ought to + have + verb 3 / been could + have + verb 3 / been might + have + verb 3 / been should + have + verb 3 / been would + have + verb 3 / been
3. Interrogative (question) a. Preceded by Auxiliary • • When the question is preceded by auxiliary that needs yes/No answer it will be used the conjunction if or whether in the indirect speech The steps how to make indirect speech: – – The question sentence of the indirect speech is firstly changed to be statement It then follows the rules before
Example DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH Doctor: ‘Do you usually take a nap? ’ • It is firstly changed to be: You usually take a nap Doctor asked if/whether I usually take a nap.
Example DIRECT SPEECH Mary: ‘Are you a student? ’ – It is firstly changed to be: You are a student INDIRECT SPEECH – Ratu asked if/whether I was a student
Example DIRECT SPEECH John: ‘May I borrow your car? ’ • Preceded by Question Word (QW) – It is firstly changed to be: I may borrow your car INDIRECT SPEECH – John asked if he might borrow my – John asked whether he might borrow my
a. Preceded by Question Words • In the question using Question Word (QW) – To form indirect speech the question is firstly changed to be statement – QW: what, when, where, which, why, whom, etc. are used as conjunction
Example • DIRECT SPEECH – Andi: ‘How do you spell your name? ’ - It is firstly changed to be: You spell your name • INDIRECT SPEECH Andi asked how I spelt my name
Example DIRECT SPEECH – Sophia: Where can you keep your money safely? ’ It is firstly changed to be: You can keep your money safely INDIRECT SPEECH - Sophia asked me where I could keep my money safely.