DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH DEFINITION Reported speech also
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DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH
DEFINITION � Reported speech – also known as Indirect speech � Direct speech: John said, “Ali is tired. ” � The verb ‘said’ is known as the reporting verb. � The words in inverted commas (“”) are what John actually said.
DEFINITION � Changes are made when direct speeches are transformed into indirect speeches. Tenses are not changed if: (a) the reporting verb is given in the present tense. E. g. Lily says, “It is the hottest month of the year. ” � (a) In reported form, it would be - Lily says that it is the hottest month of the year. This means that the reported statement is always true.
DEFINITION � Tenses are also not changed if the direct speech is a fact: (a) Mr Lim said, “Mammals give birth to young alive. ” (a) Mr Lim said that mammals give birth to young alive. � Note that the tense of verb ‘give’ does not change.
CHANGES IN TENSES
CHANGES IN PRONOUNS � � � Direct Speech I me my mine we us ours you / them yours to to to Reported Speech he / she him / her his / hers they them theirs he / she, him / her, they to to his / her, their his / hers, theirs
CHANGES IN PLACE, TIME AND OTHERS � � � � � Direct Speech here this these now today tonight tomorrow yesterday last night last week / month / year next week / month /year ago come must to to to Reported Speech there that those to to to then that day that night the next day / the following day the previous day to to to the previous night the previous day / month / year the following week / month / year to to to before go / went / gone has / have / had to
NOTE OF PRECAUTION � Words like ‘would’, ‘could’, ‘should’, ‘might’ and ‘ought to’ remain the same in the reported speech. � Contractions (short forms) like ‘I’ll’ and ‘they’re’ are not allowed in reported speech. Write in full.
YES / NO QUESTIONS � Use of if / whether � Direct: Ali asked Peter, “Are you joining the competition? ” � Indirect: Ali asked Peter if he was joining the competition. � Indirect: Ali asked Peter whether he was joining the competition.
WH - QUESTIONS � Repeat the question word (wh-) in the reported speech � Direct: The man asked, “Who took my sandwich? ” � Indirect: The man asked who had taken his sandwich. � Direct: Mr Sim asked the pupils, “What are you doing? ” � Indirect: Mr Sim asked the pupils what they were doing.
CHANGE IN ORDER OF WORDS In reported speech, the verb or verbs appear after the subject � Direct: Timothy asked, “Is this book mine? ” V S � Indirect: Timothy asked if that book was his. S V � Direct: “When are you free? ” Henry asked Ken. V S � Indirect: Henry asked Ken when he was free. S V �
REPORTING ORDERS AND REQUESTS � Use of ‘told’, ordered’, ‘asked’ etc. � Direct: Mr Lim asked the pupils, “Could you walk quietly? ” � Indirect: Mr Lim asked the pupils if they could walk quietly. � Direct: “March smartly!” the sergeant yelled at the soldiers. � Indirect: The sergeant ordered the soldiers to march smartly.
REPORTING ORDERS AND REQUESTS � ‘Don’t’ changed to ‘not to’ � Direct: “Don’t play in the corridor, ” Ms Jane told the boys. � Indirect: Ms Jane told the boys not to play in the corridor. � Direct: “Ben, don’t leave your shoes outside, ” Mother warned. � Indirect: Mother warned Ben not to leave his shoes outside.