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Direct and Indirect Experience Effects on affective and cognitive responses in the attitude-behavior relation Millar & Millar
Attitudes Tool Research Influences
Experience and Attitude-Behavior Relationship Attitude influence is complex Personality Situation Direct experience Indirect experience
Example: A new food Reading about it Attitude formed based on attributes or cognitions COGNITIVE Tasting it - the 2 nd Street Bakery Bread Attitude formed based on gut or emotional reaction AFFECTIVE
Major question If direct and indirect experience changes the degree that an attitude is affectively or cognitively based, then how does this change the attitude’s ability to predict behavior? Many researchers have proposed that some behavior is more cognitively driven and others more affectively driven.
Terms to know Instrumental behavior preformed to accomplish a goal beyond the activity involved in performing it – more cognitively driven Consummatory behavior preformed only for the activity involved in performing it – more affectively driven (emotionally)
Millar & Millar - hypothesis Attitudes formed through direct experience produce more affective reactions and are better predictors of consummatory behavior. Alternatively, attitude formed through indirect experience produce more cognitive reaction and are better predictors of instrumental behavior.
Students + Puzzles – 3 studies Study 1
Students + Puzzles – 3 studies Study 2
Students + Puzzles – 3 studies Study 3
Overall results Results are part of a body of evidence related to the usefulness of the distinction between affective and cognitive based attitudes. Application to Environmentally Responsible Behavior? Advantages? Disadvantages?
Related article Title: Engaging with the natural environment: The role of affective connection and identity Journal of Environmental Psychology, 2008 Test: research that shows greater experience with the natural environment leads to more pro-environmental attitudes. Affect can be both an important predictor of environmental attitudes and rate as more important by participants than cognitions. Greater experiences = greater affective connections.
Method and Results Survey Rural vs. urban childhoods Richard Louv – Last Child in the Woods What will be the ramifications if direct experience in nature is lost? Will it effect ERB?