- Slides: 60
Digital Photography Introduction to world of digital photography An Overview of digital camera technology, basic photographic techniques. By Ashok Sorout
Digital Photography Technology DSLR, Megapixels, Image stabilisation, Dust Reduction, Live View, Sensors, facial recognition. . ? ?
Type of cameras Point and Shoot Prosumer Digital SLR
Point and shoot cameras Commonly referred to as “consumer digital cameras”. 1. 2. 3. 4. Typically small, compact and lightweight Targeted at broad majority Typically very User. Friendly Image Quality has improved drastically
Prosumer digital cameras Common term used to describe advanced models of P&S (now also used to describe many entry level DSLR's) Similar in shape and appearance to Digital SLR's Typically have extended zoom range (8 -12 X Optical Equiv) Typically combine user friendly P&S features with more advanced manual features.
Digital Photography DSLR, One should always spend 20% on Body and 80% on lens
Difference between DSLR and P&S
The short answer is. . . Image Quality But Why? How can a 6 megapixel DSLR take a better picture than a 10 megapixel point and shoot? Because Size Matters!
Digital sensor Each digital image is made from millions of tiny squares, known as pixels. An image is recorded by tiny micro lenses (pixels) which make up the cameras sensor
Digital sensor All Pixels are not created equal! A digital sensor is essentially made up of millions of tiny micro-lenses (pixels) Pixels are analog devices which record light and color data Larger Sensors contain larger pixels, which are much better for collecting this data
Digital sensors Full frame DSLR camera have 35 mm film camera size sensor.
Full-Frame versus APS-C Sized Sensors
Digital Camera Features and Technologies Megapixels – Determine the total size (Dimensions) of the image recorded by camera - More MP does not always mean a better picture - Digital Image dimensions do not equal print dimensions - For example a full quality image from an 8 megapixel camera will produce a digital image measuring approximately 9 X 14 inches but printing standards say that you should not print to “Photo Quality” any larger than 8 X 10
What mega pixel do I need? How many megapixels you need depends on the how you are going to use your images. Viewing On Computer Monitor / Online 6 x 4 prints 10 x 8 inch prints Megapixels Needed 1 -3 megapixels 2 megapixels 5 megapixels 14 x 11 inch prints or larger 7 megapixels If you only enjoy your photos on your computer screen, or uploading to a photo website to share with friends, you really only need a 1 megapixel camera. That is because your computer monitor is usually about 1000 x 1000 pixels = 1 megapixel! I'd err on the safe side and use a 3 megapixel camera or higher to enable cropping
Picture quality depends on? The number of megapixels is only one aspect relating to actual quality of photo. Picture quality depends on camera sensor, lens and other elements like Good lighting of a subject Proper focus Lens used Camera shake Proper camera settings used,
Camera Shake With Shake Without shaking Modern camera comes with shake reduction technology called “Image stabilization” or “Vibration Reduction”
Image stabilization Nikon – VR – Vibration Reduction Canon – IS – Image Stabilization Pentax – SR – Shake Reduction Sony – SSS – Super Steady-Shot Sample images
How to hold the camera
Live View Refers to the ability to use the lcd screen on the camera the same way you would use the viewfinder Shots can be composed even while holding the camera away from your face Originally only a feature in P&S, DSLR’s now use Live View also
Facial Recognition Camera detects faces in your frame based on color, contrast change, etc. Focus is automatically adjusted so detail in faces is high Color and contrast are automatically adjusted to create pleasing skin tones
Shutter Speed Refers to how long the shutter is open, exposing the image sensor to light. (how long the camera “sees” the picture) Measured in Seconds, from 30 down to 1/8000 Fast Shutter Speeds (600 and up) are used to stop motion and will freeze the subject.
Shutter Speed Slow Shutter Speeds (1/60 or slower) can be used to portray movement or speed
Shutter Speed Very Slow Shutter Speeds (5 sec. or slower) can be used in very low light situations to obtain correct exposure, or achieve dramatic effects.
Shutter Speed Beware! As your shutter speed decreases, your chances of getting a blurry image increase because you must hold the camera steady for a longer period.
Aperture An aperture is defined as a hole or opening through which light is admitted. Inside the camera lens is a system of blades which open and close to increase or decrease the opening through which light passes into the camera
Aperture Often referred to as an f-stop, aperture is usually represented by: f/1. 8, or f/5. 6 A Smaller F number means a wider opening and is referred to as a larger value (eg. A large aperture of 2. 0, a small aperture of 22) The wider the lens is open(larger aperture value), the more light gets in (you can use faster shutter speeds)
Depth of field Aperture also controls depth of field (DOF), which refers to how much of your image is in focus. A wide aperture (small #) will give a shallow DOF and can be used to isolate a subject.
ISO - Sensitivity Refers to the light sensitivity of the sensor HIGH ISO value means the sensor will be MORE sensitive to light, meaning it will take LESS LIGHT to get the right exposure Similar to Film Speeds in 35 mm format
ISO - Sensitivity Noise is similar to film grain and causes loss of fine detail in images It is more visible in dark parts of an image and is generally more noticeable when displayed on screen than in print
The fourth Element White Balance White balance doesn't really affect your exposure, just the appearance of colors in the image Different light sources cast their own colors, which cannot usually be noticed with the naked eye. White Balance is essentially the camera compensating for the color cast of the light in order to reproduce the “correct” colors
Camera modes Auto Mode. This mode pretty much does exactly what it says on the dial. In Auto Mode, the camera will set everything for you -- from your aperture and shutter speed right through to your white balance and ISO. It will also automatically fire your pop-up Program Mode (P). Program Mode is a semi-automatic mode, and it's sometimes called Program Auto mode. The camera still controls most of the functions, but you are able to control ISO, white balance, and flash.
Camera modes Aperture Priority Mode (A or AV). In Aperture Priority Mode, you have control over setting the aperture (or f-stop). This means that you can control both the amount of light that comes through the lens and the depth of field while photographing a stationary image that won't be affected by shutter speed.
Camera modes Shutter Priority Mode (S or TV). When trying to freeze fast moving objects, shutter priority mode is your friend! It's also ideal for times when you want to use long exposures. You'll have control over the shutter speed, and the camera will set the appropriate aperture and ISO setting for you. Shutter Priority Mode is especially useful with sport and wildlife photography.
Camera modes Manual Mode (M). This is the mode that pro photographers use most of the time, as it allows complete control over all the camera's functions. Manual mode means that you can adjust all functions to suit lighting conditions and other factors. However, using manual mode requires a good understanding of the relationships between different functions -- in particular of the relationship between shutter speed and aperture.
The Rule of Thirds
Rule of Thirds Illustrated
Rule of Thirds Illustrated
Rule of Thirds Illustrated
Rule of Thirds Illustrated
Rule of Thirds Again, the concept is simple: Place subjects along the lines, or near intersecting points For portraits, the eyes are often positioned along one of the horizontal lines preferably near one of the power points to make the photograph more pleasing to look at, and naturally draw attention to the eyes. For landscapes the horizon is aligned to any of the horizontal lines depending on how much land/water/sky you want to show.
Basic photography Composition & light Visualize role in design and message Survey different sources Adjust or remove features to complement purpose Choose simple, yet interesting composition Select lighting that enhances subject or reinforces the message Choose angle that best shows subject and reinforces the purpose Use color when practical Establish size, scale and orientation
Capture special events
Keep it simple Keep background uncluttered Avoid mergers Have single dominant subject
Single dominant subject
Angle Low angle � Clear sky backdrop � Accentuate movement or action High angle � Eliminate cloudy sky Avoid centered horizons Use the light Emphasize a point, tone
Framing • Would this picture look better if I was closer? • Focus on subject • Detail • Start far and move closer • Fill the frame with objects that “fit” • Long range shots provide depth and perspective
Fill the frame
Fill the frame
Pick a good light direction • Three light directions • Front - sunny with high color • Side - depth and texture • Back - dynamic but challenging Silhouettes and water effects
Landscape tips • Take pictures at the start and end of the day • Anticipate weather changes • Diffused light can highlight patterns and textures • Bright light highlights monochrome colors • Move around to exclude or block objects from view
Wildlife tips • • Fill the frame Avoid barriers Shoot against the glass if in a car (no flash) Use tripod Blur background, or find simple one Focus on the eyes Go for natural poses, growls, yawns, etc.
Post Processing and Image Management Digital Photo Professional by Canon Nikon Capture Nx-D by Nikon Photoscape Photoshop
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