- Slides: 66
Digestive System Audrey Simmons
The Digestive System My Drawing of the Digestive System
The Digestive System Function of the Digestive System The organs of the digestive system function to carry out digestion, ingestion, propulsion, absorption, and defecation.
The Digestive System Alimentary organs and their function Mouth Mechanical breakdown of food; begins chemical digestion of carbohydrates Pharynx Connects mouth with esophagus Esophagus Peristalsis pushes food to stomach Secretes acid and enzymes. Mixes food with secretions to begin enzymatic digestion of proteins
The Digestive System Alimentary organs and their function Small Intestine Mixes food with bile and pancreatic juice. Final enzymatic breakdown of food molecules; main site of nutrient absorption The Duodenum-25 cm long, 5 cm in diameter. The shortest portion and most fixed point of the small intestine. The Jejunum- mobile. Greater diameter, thicker wall, and more vascular than the ileum. The Ileum-smaller than the jejunum, has more lymph nodules than the jejunum and a higher bacteria population.
The Digestive System Alimentary organs and their function Large Intestine Absorbs water and electrolytes to form feces Cecum- a dilated, pouchlike structure Appendix-no known digestive function, contains lymphatic tissue (defense) Colon-Recover water that has entered the alimentary canal. Divided into 4 sections, ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid. Rectum-Regulates elimination of feces Anal canal (anus)-eliminates feces from the body
The Digestive System Alimentary organs and their function Sphincters Internal & external sphincter muscles- involuntary and voluntary muscles guarding the anus Ileocecal sphincter-joins the small intestine’s ileum to the large intestine’s cecum. Normally remains constricted. Pyloric sphincter-muscle that acts as a valve in the stomach to control gastric emptying.
The Digestive System Accessory glands and their function Salivary glands Secrete saliva, which contains enzymes that initiate breakdown of carbohydrates Liver Produces bile, which emulsifies fat Gallbladder Stores bile and introduces it into small intestine Pancreas Produces and secretes pancreatic juice, containing digestive enzymes and bicarbonate ions, into small intestine
The Digestive System Types of Digestion The breaking down of food Physical Breaks down large pieces into smaller ones without altering their chemical composition Chemical Breaks food down into simpler chemicals
The Digestive System Digestion of the specifics Carbohydrate Begins in the mouth Small intestine The enzyme salivary amylase starts breaking down the sugars Pancreatic amylase breaks Carbs down further into disaccharides Protein Stomach Pepsin is secreted and activated by hydrogen ions and hydrolyze proteins into peptides Small intestine Carboxypeptidase and chymotrypsin further break protein into simple peptides and amino acids
The Digestive System Digestion of the specifics Lipids Mouth Lingual lipase starts to slightly break apart the lipids Stomach Gastric lipase produced to further break down Churning of the stomach also helps Small intestine Pancreatic lipase breaks lipids down into monoglycerides and fatty acids
The Digestive System Crohn’s disease Chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract Symptoms Prevalence Persistent Diarrhea Rectal bleeding Urgent need to move bowels Abdominal cramps and pain Sensation of incomplete defecation Constipation May affect 700, 000 Americans More prevalent among ages 15 -35 Treatment Medication that suppresses inflammation Good diet and nutrition Surgery: removal of the diseased bowel
The Digestive System Gastroesophageal reflux disease When the contents of the stomach leak back into the esophagus Symptoms Prevalence Irritate/damage the esophagus Heartburn Nausea Very common Affects 10 -20 million in the U. S. Treatment Antacids Proton pump inhibitors-decrease acid produced in stomach H 2 blockers-decreased acid released in stomach
The Digestive System Works cited http: //www. wisconline. com/objects/View. Object. aspx? ID=AP 15806 http: //www. physiologymodels. info/digestion/proteins. htm http: //instruct. westvalley. edu/granieri/bio 45 lipid 2. pdf http: //www. ccfa. org/what-are-crohns-and-colitis/what-is-crohnsdisease/ http: //www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/pubmedhealth/PMH 0001311/ http: //www. sts. org/patient-information/esophagealsurgery/gastroesophageal-reflux-disease Butler, Jackie, and Ricki Lewis. "Digestive System. " Hole's Human Anatomy & Physiology. By David Shier. 11 th ed. New York: Mc. Graw-Hill, 2007. N. pag. Print. Campbell, Neil A. , and Jane B. Reece. Biology. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings, 2002. Print.
The Endocrine System
The Endocrine System Function of the Endocrine system Named because the cells, tissues, and organs that comprise it (the endocrine glands) secrete hormones into the internal environment of the body
The Endocrine System Homeostasis The body’s maintenance of a stable internal environment Homeostasis in the endocrine system is a stable amount of hormones in the body at all times
The Endocrine System Negative Feedback A negative feedback is when a response is reduced and eventually stops The hypothalamus controls the anterior pituitary gland’s release of tropic hormones (hormones that make other glands secrete hormones. ) The hypothalamus constantly receives info on the homeostasis and employs negative feedback when levels of a certain hormone is too high
The Endocrine System My drawing of the endocrine system
The Endocrine System The Glands and Their Hormones Hypothalamus Hormones released from the posterior pituitary and hormones that regulate the anterior pituitary Pituitary gland Growth hormone-stimulates growth and metabolic functions Thyroid gland Calcitonin-lowers blood calcium level Parathyroid gland Parathyroid hormone-raises blood calcium level
The Endocrine System The Gland Their Hormones Pancreas Glucagon-raises blood glucose level Adrenal glands Epinephrine-raises blood glucose level Gonads Androgens-support sperm formation; promote development & maintenance of male secondary sex characteristics Pineal gland Melatonin-involved in biological rhythms
The Endocrine System Insulin Beta cells in the pancreas produce insulin when there is too much glucose in the blood Insulin leaves the pancreas via exocytosis Insulin takes glucose to body cells for fuel in cellular respiration
The Endocrine System Diabetes Type II Thirst, frequent urination, lethargy, vision changes, sugar in urine, fruity breath Prevalence The body doesn’t use the insulin efficiently Signs & symptoms Pancreas produces little or no insulin 1 -450 develop type I, increased type II in kids Treatment Insulin injections, balanced diet, exercise
The Endocrine System Addison’s disease Deficiency of the adrenal gland hormones, cortisol or aldosterone Symptoms Fatigue, muscle weakness, loss of appetite, freckling, nausea, etc. Prevalence 1 -100, 000 have it, rare JFK had it Treatment Avoid stress, replace hormone, avoid infection
The Endocrine System Works Cited http: //jdrf. org/life-with-t 1 d/frequently-asked-questions/#types http: //www. webmd. com/a-to-z-guides/understanding-addisonsdisease http: //www. emc. maricopa. edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/endocrorgs. gif http: //gimnasio-altair. com/tps/wpcontent/uploads/2012/08/24 hendocrineglad. jpg http: //www. medicalook. com/diseases_images/diabetes 1. jpg http: //www. daviddarling. info/images/Kennedy_Addisons. jpg Butler, Jackie, and Ricki Lewis. "Digestive System. " Hole's Human Anatomy & Physiology. By David Shier. 11 th ed. New York: Mc. Graw. Hill, 2007. N. pag. Print. Campbell, Neil A. , and Jane B. Reece. Biology. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings, 2002. Print.
The Excretory System Excretory system Function The systems that excrete wastes from the body. The system of organs that regulates the amount of water in the body and filters and eliminate s from the blood the wastes produced by metabolism. Organs The principal organs of the excretory system are the kidneys, ureters, urethra, and urinary bladder.
The Excretory System Organs and their function Kidneys Ureters Muscular ducts or tubes conveying the urine from the kidneys to the bladder or cloaca. Bladder A pair of bean-shaped organs in the back part of the abdominal cavity that form and excrete urine, regulate fluid and electrolyte balance, and act as endocrine glands. A distensible membranous sac in which the urine excreted fro m the kidneys is stored. Urethra The membranous tube that extends from the urinary bladder t o the exterior and conveys urine.
The Excretory System The kidney
The Excretory System Nitrogenous Wastes Ammonia Very soluble but can only be tolerated at small amounts Animals that excrete ammonia need access to a lot of water Fish excrete ammonia Ammonia molecules diffuse into the surrounding water Most of the ammonia is lost as ammonium ions
The Excretory System Nitrogenous Wastes Urea Relativity nontoxic substance produced in the vertebrate liver by a metabolic cycle that combines ammonia with carbon dioxide. Mammals, most adult amphibians, sharks, and some fish and turtles mainly excrete urea. The circulatory system carries it to the urea to the excretory systems’ organ the kidneys.
The Excretory System Nitrogenous Wastes Uric acid Relativity nontoxic but is largely insoluble in water and can be excreted as a semisolid waste. Perfect for animals that have little access to water Insects, land snails, many reptiles, including birds excretes uric acid
The Excretory System Close up of a part of a kidney
The Excretory System Structures of the nephron Renal cortex Renal medulla Passes into the renal medulla. Empties into a minor calyx in renal papilla. Juxtamedullary nephron The inner part of the kidney Collecting duct The outer part of the kidney Have corpuscles close to renal medulla. Important in regulating water balance. Cortical nephron Have short nephron groups that don’t reach the real medulla
The Excretory System Nephron processes Filtration The excretory tubule collects a filtrate from the blood. Water and solutes are forced by blood pressure across the selectively permeable membranes of a cluster of capillaries and into the excretory tubule. Reabsorption The transport epithelium reclaims valuable substances from the filtrate and returns them to the body fluids.
The Excretory System Nephron Processes Secretion Other substances, such as toxins and excess ions, are extracted from body fluids and added to the contents of the excretory tube Excretion The filtrate leaves the systems and the body.
The Excretory System Interstitial Neprhitis Inflammation of the spaces between the tubules of the kidneys. When these spaces become inflamed, the kidneys cannot function effectively and waste is improperly filtered. Symptoms Prevalence decreased urine output, fever, drowsiness, confusion, nausea, vomiting, rash, generalized body swelling and weight gain Short-term, common disorder. Can cause permanent damage if a chronic case. Treatment corticosteroids and anti-inflammatory medications to decrease swelling quickly. Patients should follow a salt- and fluid-restricted diet as well.
The Excretory System Cystitis (urinary tract infection) Inflammation of the bladder most often caused by a bacterial infection that enters the body through the urethra and travels upward into the bladder. Symptoms Prevalence Strong urge to urinate, burning during urination, blood in the urine, urine with a strong odor, discomfort and pressure in the abdomen and pelvis and a low fever. Very common, more common in females. Treatment Antibiotics that patients either take orally or receive as injections directly into the bladder.
The Excretory System Works cited http: //www. marietta. edu/~mcshaffd/aquatic/sextant/osmwaste. gif https: //encryptedtbn 1. gstatic. com/images? q=tbn: ANd 9 Gc. Th. Lc. IBb. YEDVz 6 a. Uka Hb. Gh. HLxq. H 5 NNc. HN 8 xbz. Kw. Zf. SEw. Q 7 i. AN 9 Q http: //dictionary. reference. com/browse/excretory+system? s=t http: //www. livestrong. com/article/191406 -disorders-in-theexcretory-system/ Butler, Jackie, and Ricki Lewis. "Digestive System. " Hole's Human Anatomy & Physiology. By David Shier. 11 th ed. New York: Mc. Graw-Hill, 2007. N. pag. Print. Campbell, Neil A. , and Jane B. Reece. Biology. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings, 2002. Print.
The Immune System Function Protect the body (from infection) To keep infectious organisms (bacteria, viruses, and fungi) out of the body Destroy infections that do invade the body
The Immune System Organs Adenoids Appendix Blood vessels Bone marrow Lymph nodes Lymphatic vessels Peyer’s patches Spleen Thymus Tonsils
The Immune System Recognizing pathogens An immune response start when B cells or T cells react to a foreign antigen in the body. Their reaction causes plasma cells to release antibodies into the lymph, then the antibodies are transported through the blood, and then the entire body The antibodies find and help destroy the harmful antigens
The Immune System Active Immunity Naturally acquired (Ex: chickenpox) Develops after a primary immune response A response to exposure to a live pathogen and development of symptoms Artificially acquired (Ex: polio vaccine) A person gets a killed or weakened strand of a bacteria or virus This stimulates the immune system without harming the person
The Immune System Passive Immunity Artificially acquired (Ex: antiserum for Hepatitis A) An injection of antibodies or antitoxins Passive because the body doesn’t produce antibodies Only short term immunity Naturally acquired (Ex: breast feeding) Antibodies passed to a fetus or baby from a pregnant or nursing woman Short-term immunity for baby
The Immune System Humoral immunity Humoral refers to fluid Kind of immune response stimulated by B cells Plasma cells produce and secrete up to 2000 antibody molecules a second Body fluids carry antibodies, which then destroy bad antigens
The Immune System Cell-mediated immunity T cells attach to foreign, antigen-bearing cells and interact cell-to-cell contact
The Immune System B and T Lymphocytes Activation T cells requires an antigen-presenting cell (a cell with fragments of antigens attached to it) in order to be activated activation begins when a macrophage phagocytizes a bacterium B cells become activated when it encounters an antigen that fits antigen receptors Most need T cells help to activate
The Immune System B and T Lymphocytes Action T Cells Provide cellular immune response in which T cells interact directly with the antigens to destroy them B cells Provide humoral immune response in which B cells interact indirectly, producing antibodies that destroy the antigens
The Immune System Antibiotics and viruses Antibiotics work to destroy living bacteria They don’t work against viruses because they aren’t living Because viruses are not “alive” antibiotics can’t “kill” them
The Immune System HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) Virus that attacks white blood cells and eventually shuts down the immune system Symptoms Prevalence Chills, fever, rash, sweats, swollen lymph glands, weakness, weight loss 6 th leading cause of death in 25 -44 yr olds in the US Treatment No cure yet Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)
The Immune System Rheumatoid Arthritis Autoimmune disorder that’s causes chronic inflammation of the joints on both sides of the body Symptoms Joint pain and swelling, stiffness, fatigue Prevalence Affects 1% of US, more common in women and the middle aged Treatment Anti-inflammatory & pain killing drugs, rest & exercise, surgery
The Immune System Works Cited Butler, Jackie, and Ricki Lewis. "Digestive System. " Hole's Human Anatomy & Physiology. By David Shier. 11 th ed. New York: Mc. Graw-Hill, 2007. N. pag. Print. Campbell, Neil A. , and Jane B. Reece. Biology. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings, 2002. Print. http: //medicalcenter. osu. edu/patientcare/healthcare_services/infe ctious_diseases/immunesystem/Pages/index. aspx http: //curiosity. discovery. com/question/antibiotics-immune-toviruses http: //www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/pubmedhealth/PMH 0001620/#adam_ 000594. disease. treatment http: //www. webmd. com/rheumatoid-arthritis/guide/rheumatoidarthritis-basics? page=2 http: //www. activamune. com/immune_system. PNG http: //www. garmaonhealth. com/wpcontent/uploads/2012/11/immune_system. jpg
The Nervous System Functions Sensory Gather information by detecting changes inside and outside of the body. Integrative Create sensations, add to memories, help produce thoughts Motor Cause muscles to react to nerve impulses
The Nervous System Central Nervous System CNS The part of the nervous system in vertebrates composed of the brain and the spinal cord Major parts Brain Spinal Cord
The Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System PNS The sensory and motor neurons that connect to the central nervous system Major parts Cranial parts Spinal nerves
The Nervous System Drawing of a neuron
The Nervous System Simple reflex arc of knee-jerk Reflex initiated by tapping the reflex tendons connected to quadriceps 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Sensors detect a sudden stretch in quadriceps Sensory neurons convey the information to the spinal cord Sensory neurons communicate with motor neurons, causing quads to contract and jerk the lower leg forward Sensory neurons communicate with interneurons in the spinal cord Interneurons inhibit motor neurons that supply the hamstrings and prevents hamstrings to resist the action of the quads
The Nervous System The Brain Frontal lobe Parietal lobe Provide sensations of temperature, touch, pressure, and pain involving the skin Understanding speech and in using words to express thoughts and feelings Temporal lobe Association areas carry on higher intellectual processes for concentrating, planning, complex problem solving, and judging the consequences of behavior control voluntary muscle movements Responsible for hearing Interpret sensory experiences and remember visual scenes, music, and other complex sensory patterns Occipital lobe Responsible for vision Visual images with other sensory experiences
The Nervous System How nerve impulses travel through neurons The neuron’s membrane is polarized When the nerve is stimulated the ion gated channel is opened depolarizing the membrane by letting NA+ in K+ out the neuron reaches threshold potential When threshold is reached Na+ on the outside and K+ and negative nucleic acids/protein on the inside of the membrane The neuron is at resting potential and inactive action potential results, setting up a nerve impulse After nerve impulse passes refractory period is triggered The gates close, the nerve is repolarized, and resting potential reached again.
The Nervous System How a nerve impulse travels through neurons
The Nervous System Neurotransmitters Neurons release neurotransmitters to diffuse across the synaptic cleft and react with the receptors in the postsynaptic membrane of the other neuron They open/close channels, stimulate muscle contraction, etc. IPSP Inhibitory postsynaptic potential Makes action potential less likely to occur EPSP Excitatory postsynaptic potential Making action potential more likely to happen
The Nervous System Alzheimer disease A type of Dementia that causes problems with memory and behavior caused by an acetylcholine deficiency Symptoms Prevalence Memory loss, depression, disorientation, dementia, hallucinations, death Accounts for 50 -80% of dementia cases, most people with Alzheimer’s are 65 though early on-set can occur at 40 Treatment No current cure, but clinical trials and treatment sessions help to slow progress
The Nervous System Multiple Sclerosis Disorder of the central nervous system where the myelin coating in the brain and spinal cord become inflamed and destroyed leaving scars that block neurons Symptoms Prevalence Blurred vision, numbness, paralysis, depression, fatigue 2. 5 million worldwide, 400, 000 in North America Treatment Drugs such as steroids, Beta interferon, and Glatiramer acetate
The Nervous System Works Cited http: //www. methuen. k 12. ma. us/mnmelan/Main%2 0 Page/movingimpulse. jpg http: //www. alz. org/alzheimers_disease_what_is_al zheimers. asp Butler, Jackie, and Ricki Lewis. "Digestive System. " Hole's Human Anatomy & Physiology. By David Shier. 11 th ed. New York: Mc. Graw-Hill, 2007. N. pag. Print. Campbell, Neil A. , and Jane B. Reece. Biology. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings, 2002. Print.