Diencephalon https mjm blog ir Diencephalon Thalamus dorsal

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Diencephalon ﻣﻬﺪی ﺟﻼﻟی ﻣﺠﺪ https: //m-j-m. blog. ir

Diencephalon ﻣﻬﺪی ﺟﻼﻟی ﻣﺠﺪ https: //m-j-m. blog. ir

Diencephalon • Thalamus dorsal thalamus • Hypothalamus pituitary gland • Epithalamus habenular nucleus and

Diencephalon • Thalamus dorsal thalamus • Hypothalamus pituitary gland • Epithalamus habenular nucleus and commissure pineal gland • Subthalamus ventral thalamus subthalamic nucleus (STN) field of Forel ﻣﻬﺪی ﺟﻼﻟی ﻣﺠﺪ https: //m-j-m. blog. ir

Diencephalon dorsal surface ﻣﻬﺪی ﺟﻼﻟی ﻣﺠﺪ https: //m-j-m. blog. ir

Diencephalon dorsal surface ﻣﻬﺪی ﺟﻼﻟی ﻣﺠﺪ https: //m-j-m. blog. ir

Diencephalon ventral surface ﻣﻬﺪی ﺟﻼﻟی ﻣﺠﺪ https: //m-j-m. blog. ir

Diencephalon ventral surface ﻣﻬﺪی ﺟﻼﻟی ﻣﺠﺪ https: //m-j-m. blog. ir

Diencephalon Medial Surface ﻣﻬﺪی ﺟﻼﻟی ﻣﺠﺪ https: //m-j-m. blog. ir

Diencephalon Medial Surface ﻣﻬﺪی ﺟﻼﻟی ﻣﺠﺪ https: //m-j-m. blog. ir

THALAMUS ﻣﻬﺪی ﺟﻼﻟی ﻣﺠﺪ https: //m-j-m. blog. ir

THALAMUS ﻣﻬﺪی ﺟﻼﻟی ﻣﺠﺪ https: //m-j-m. blog. ir

Classification of Thalamic Nuclei I. Lateral Nuclear Group II. Medial Nuclear Group III. Anterior

Classification of Thalamic Nuclei I. Lateral Nuclear Group II. Medial Nuclear Group III. Anterior Nuclear Group IV. Posterior Nuclear Group V. Metathalamic Nuclear Group VI. Intralaminar Nuclear Group VII. Thalamic Reticular Nucleus ﻣﻬﺪی ﺟﻼﻟی ﻣﺠﺪ https: //m-j-m. blog. ir

Classification of Thalamic Nuclei ﻣﻬﺪی ﺟﻼﻟی ﻣﺠﺪ https: //m-j-m. blog. ir

Classification of Thalamic Nuclei ﻣﻬﺪی ﺟﻼﻟی ﻣﺠﺪ https: //m-j-m. blog. ir

LATERAL NUCLEAR GROUP Ventral Nuclear Group Ventral Posterior Nucleus (VP) ventral posterolateral nucleus ventral

LATERAL NUCLEAR GROUP Ventral Nuclear Group Ventral Posterior Nucleus (VP) ventral posterolateral nucleus ventral posteromedial nucleus (VPM) ventral posteroinferior nucleus (VPI) ﻣﻬﺪی ﺟﻼﻟی ﻣﺠﺪ https: //m-j-m. blog. ir

LATERAL NUCLEAR GROUP Ventral Lateral Nucleus (VL) Ventral Anterior Nucleus (VA, L. po. )

LATERAL NUCLEAR GROUP Ventral Lateral Nucleus (VL) Ventral Anterior Nucleus (VA, L. po. ) ﻣﻬﺪی ﺟﻼﻟی ﻣﺠﺪ https: //m-j-m. blog. ir

LATERAL NUCLEAR GROUP Prefrontal SMA MI, PM SI Ventral Nuclear Group TTT SNr GPi

LATERAL NUCLEAR GROUP Prefrontal SMA MI, PM SI Ventral Nuclear Group TTT SNr GPi Cbll ML, STT ﻣﻬﺪی ﺟﻼﻟی ﻣﺠﺪ https: //m-j-m. blog. ir

LATERAL NUCLEAR GROUP Dorsal or Lateral Nuclear Group Lateral Dorsal Nucleus (LD, D. sf.

LATERAL NUCLEAR GROUP Dorsal or Lateral Nuclear Group Lateral Dorsal Nucleus (LD, D. sf. ) Lateral Posterior Nucleus (LP, D. im. & Z. im. ) Pulvinar (P, Pu. ) ﻣﻬﺪی ﺟﻼﻟی ﻣﺠﺪ https: //m-j-m. blog. ir

LATERAL NUCLEAR GROUP cingulate gyrus, precuneus Somesthetic Association Area HF SC, Pretectal ﻣﻬﺪی ﺟﻼﻟی

LATERAL NUCLEAR GROUP cingulate gyrus, precuneus Somesthetic Association Area HF SC, Pretectal ﻣﻬﺪی ﺟﻼﻟی ﻣﺠﺪ https: //m-j-m. blog. ir Visual Association area

MEDIAL NUCLEAR GROUP Dorsomedial Nucleus (MD) - pars magnocellularis - pars parvocellularis Midline Nuclear

MEDIAL NUCLEAR GROUP Dorsomedial Nucleus (MD) - pars magnocellularis - pars parvocellularis Midline Nuclear Group ﻣﻬﺪی ﺟﻼﻟی ﻣﺠﺪ https: //m-j-m. blog. ir

ANTERIOR NUCLEAR GROUP anteroventral nucleus (AV, A. pr. ) anterodorsal nucleus (AD, A. d.

ANTERIOR NUCLEAR GROUP anteroventral nucleus (AV, A. pr. ) anterodorsal nucleus (AD, A. d. ) anteromedial nucleus (AM, A. m. ) POSTERIOR NUCLEAR GROUP suprageniculate nucleus (SG, Li. ) nucleus limitans (Lim, Li. ) posterior nucleus (PO, Li. por. ) ﻣﻬﺪی ﺟﻼﻟی ﻣﺠﺪ https: //m-j-m. blog. ir

MEDIAL & ANTERIOR NUCLEAR GROUP MB, HF cingulate gyrus Prefrontal Frontal Cortex Eye Field

MEDIAL & ANTERIOR NUCLEAR GROUP MB, HF cingulate gyrus Prefrontal Frontal Cortex Eye Field Basal forebrain Medial Frontal Gyrus SNr, SC, RF ﻣﻬﺪی ﺟﻼﻟی ﻣﺠﺪ https: //m-j-m. blog. ir

METATHALAMIC NUCLEAR GROUP Medial Geniculate Nucleus (MG) ventral nucleus dorsal nucleus medial nucleus Lateral

METATHALAMIC NUCLEAR GROUP Medial Geniculate Nucleus (MG) ventral nucleus dorsal nucleus medial nucleus Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LG) dorsal nucleus ventral nucleus ﻣﻬﺪی ﺟﻼﻟی ﻣﺠﺪ https: //m-j-m. blog. ir

INTRALAMINAR NUCLEAR GROUP Rostral Intralaminar Nuclei central lateral nucleus, central medial nucleus, paracentral nucleus,

INTRALAMINAR NUCLEAR GROUP Rostral Intralaminar Nuclei central lateral nucleus, central medial nucleus, paracentral nucleus, Caudal Intralaminar Nuclei (CM-PF nuclear complex) centre median nucleus, parafascicular nucleus, ﻣﻬﺪی ﺟﻼﻟی ﻣﺠﺪ https: //m-j-m. blog. ir

THALAMIC RETICULAR NUCLEUS Cerebral Cortex Thalamic Reticular Nucleus Thalamocortical Neuron Subcortical Structure ﻣﻬﺪی ﺟﻼﻟی

THALAMIC RETICULAR NUCLEUS Cerebral Cortex Thalamic Reticular Nucleus Thalamocortical Neuron Subcortical Structure ﻣﻬﺪی ﺟﻼﻟی ﻣﺠﺪ https: //m-j-m. blog. ir

Summary of Thalamic Connectivity I. Sensory Input general sensation special sensation taste, equilibrium, hearing,

Summary of Thalamic Connectivity I. Sensory Input general sensation special sensation taste, equilibrium, hearing, vision II. Motor Input cerebellum, basal ganglia III. Reticular Formation IV. Limbic System mammillary nucleus hippocampal formation ﻣﻬﺪی ﺟﻼﻟی ﻣﺠﺪ https: //m-j-m. blog. ir

Sensory Input (1) General Sensation 1. Medial lemniscus VPLc ------ S I, S II

Sensory Input (1) General Sensation 1. Medial lemniscus VPLc ------ S I, S II 2. Spinothalamic tract VPLc ------ S I, S II POm ------ retroinsular cortex Sm ------- frontal lobe(? ) CL ------- diffuse cortical areas 3. Trigeminothalamic tract VPM ------- S I, S II ﻣﻬﺪی ﺟﻼﻟی ﻣﺠﺪ https: //m-j-m. blog. ir

Sensory Input (2) Taste sensation VPM pc ------- gustatory area (Brodmann area 43) (3)

Sensory Input (2) Taste sensation VPM pc ------- gustatory area (Brodmann area 43) (3) Sense of equilibrium VPLo ----- S I (4) Auditory sensation MGv ------ A I (Brodmann area 41, 42) MGd ------ A II (5) Vision LGd ----- V I (Brodmann area 17) Pi, Pl ----- V I, V II (Brodmann area 17, 18, 19) ﻣﻬﺪی ﺟﻼﻟی ﻣﺠﺪ https: //m-j-m. blog. ir

Motor Input (1) Cerebellum VLc, VPLo, - M I (Brodmann area 4), Premotor area

Motor Input (1) Cerebellum VLc, VPLo, - M I (Brodmann area 4), Premotor area (2) Basal ganglia 1. GPi (internal segment of globus pallidus) ---- SMA (supplementary motor area) ------- frontal cortex 2. SNr (pars reticularis of substantia nigra) - fronal cortex ----- medial frontal cortex ----- frontal eye field (Brodmann area 8) ﻣﻬﺪی ﺟﻼﻟی ﻣﺠﺪ https: //m-j-m. blog. ir

Reticular Formation & Limbic System Reticular formation rostral intralaminar nuclei (CL, Cem, PC), Rh

Reticular Formation & Limbic System Reticular formation rostral intralaminar nuclei (CL, Cem, PC), Rh ----- diffuse cortical areas thalamic reticular nucleus (R), LGv ----- adjacent thalamic nucleus Limbic System Mammillary Body AV, AD, AM ----- cingulate gyrus Hippocampal Formation AV, AD, AM ----- cingulate gyrus LD --------- cingulate gyrus, precuneus Re ---------- medial cortex, entorhinal cortex ﻣﻬﺪی ﺟﻼﻟی ﻣﺠﺪ https: //m-j-m. blog. ir

Clinical Syndromes of the Thalamus Posterolateral thalamic syndromes sensory disorders Thalamic (Dejerine-Roussy) syndrome -----

Clinical Syndromes of the Thalamus Posterolateral thalamic syndromes sensory disorders Thalamic (Dejerine-Roussy) syndrome ----- VP nucleus - pain Medial thalamic syndromes disorders of consciousness thalamic neglect, thalamic amnesia, akinetic mutism Anterolateral thalamic syndromes motor disorders paresis, ataxia, motor incoordination, dysphagia ﻣﻬﺪی ﺟﻼﻟی ﻣﺠﺪ https: //m-j-m. blog. ir

Thalamic (Dejerine-Roussy) Syndrome Joseph Jules Dejerine (1849 -1917) Gustave Roussy (1874 -1948) ﻣﻬﺪی ﺟﻼﻟی

Thalamic (Dejerine-Roussy) Syndrome Joseph Jules Dejerine (1849 -1917) Gustave Roussy (1874 -1948) ﻣﻬﺪی ﺟﻼﻟی ﻣﺠﺪ https: //m-j-m. blog. ir

Visual (Optic) Pathway Modality: Vision Receptor: Photoreceptor Cell of Retina Cranial Nerve: II (Optic

Visual (Optic) Pathway Modality: Vision Receptor: Photoreceptor Cell of Retina Cranial Nerve: II (Optic nerve) 1 st Neuron: Bipolar Cell 2 nd Neuron: Ganglion Cell optic nerve optic chiasm optic tract 3 rd Neuron: Lateral Geniculate Nucleus optic radiation Termination: Visual Areas (V I, V II) Brodmann area 17 (V I), 18, 19 (V II) ﻣﻬﺪی ﺟﻼﻟی ﻣﺠﺪ https: //m-j-m. blog. ir

RETINA - Pars Nervosa 1. Pigment Epithelium - retinal detachment 2. Neuronal Layer (1)

RETINA - Pars Nervosa 1. Pigment Epithelium - retinal detachment 2. Neuronal Layer (1) Photosensitive Cell Layer Rod Cell, Cone Cell (2) Bipolar Cell Layer Bipolar Cell Horizontal Cell Amacrine Cell (3) Ganglion Cell Layer Ganglion Cell Optic Nerve (II) ﻣﻬﺪی ﺟﻼﻟی ﻣﺠﺪ https: //m-j-m. blog. ir

Visual Pathway 1. Optic nerve 2. Optic chiasm 3. Optic tract 4. Lateral geniculate

Visual Pathway 1. Optic nerve 2. Optic chiasm 3. Optic tract 4. Lateral geniculate body 5. Optic radiation 6. Visual cortex ﻣﻬﺪی ﺟﻼﻟی ﻣﺠﺪ https: //m-j-m. blog. ir

Visual (Optic) Pathway ﻣﻬﺪی ﺟﻼﻟی ﻣﺠﺪ https: //m-j-m. blog. ir

Visual (Optic) Pathway ﻣﻬﺪی ﺟﻼﻟی ﻣﺠﺪ https: //m-j-m. blog. ir

Visual Pathway Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGd) dorsolateral Dorsal Nucleus (LGd) Magnocellular Part 1, 2

Visual Pathway Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGd) dorsolateral Dorsal Nucleus (LGd) Magnocellular Part 1, 2 Parvocellular Part 3, 4, 5, 6 contralateral afferents 1, 4, 6 ipsilateral afferents 2, 3, 5 Ventral Nucleus (LGv) ventromedial part of thalamic reticular nucleus ﻣﻬﺪی ﺟﻼﻟی ﻣﺠﺪ https: //m-j-m. blog. ir

Optic Radiation (Geniculocalcarine Tract) Meyer’s loop ﻣﻬﺪی ﺟﻼﻟی ﻣﺠﺪ https: //m-j-m. blog. ir

Optic Radiation (Geniculocalcarine Tract) Meyer’s loop ﻣﻬﺪی ﺟﻼﻟی ﻣﺠﺪ https: //m-j-m. blog. ir

Clinical Features of Visual Pathway Lesion 1. optic nerve 2. optic chiasm 3. optic

Clinical Features of Visual Pathway Lesion 1. optic nerve 2. optic chiasm 3. optic tract 4. 5. optic radiation A. unilateral blindness B. bitemporal hemianopsia C. left homonymous hemianopsia D. left inferior homonymous quadranopsia E. left superior homonymous quadranopsia ﻣﻬﺪی ﺟﻼﻟی ﻣﺠﺪ https: //m-j-m. blog. ir

Signs of Visual Pathway Lesion Optic nerve - ipsilateral blindness Optic chiasm - bitemporal

Signs of Visual Pathway Lesion Optic nerve - ipsilateral blindness Optic chiasm - bitemporal hemianopsia Optic tract - contralateral homonymous hemianopsia Optic radiation - contralateral homonymous quadranopsia - intact light reflex Visual Cortex - contralateral homonymous quadranopsia - macular sparing ﻣﻬﺪی ﺟﻼﻟی ﻣﺠﺪ https: //m-j-m. blog. ir

Visual Field Defect left inferior optic radiation lesion right superior quadranopsia ﻣﻬﺪی ﺟﻼﻟی ﻣﺠﺪ

Visual Field Defect left inferior optic radiation lesion right superior quadranopsia ﻣﻬﺪی ﺟﻼﻟی ﻣﺠﺪ https: //m-j-m. blog. ir

Hypothalamus Limbic System ﻣﻬﺪی ﺟﻼﻟی ﻣﺠﺪ https: //m-j-m. blog. ir

Hypothalamus Limbic System ﻣﻬﺪی ﺟﻼﻟی ﻣﺠﺪ https: //m-j-m. blog. ir

Epithalamus Limbic System Habenular Nucleus Medial Habenular Nucleus Lateral Habenular Nucleus Habenular Commissure Pineal

Epithalamus Limbic System Habenular Nucleus Medial Habenular Nucleus Lateral Habenular Nucleus Habenular Commissure Pineal Gland ﻣﻬﺪی ﺟﻼﻟی ﻣﺠﺪ https: //m-j-m. blog. ir

Subthalamus Basal Ganglia Subthalamic nucleus zona incerta Field of Forel H H 1 ansa

Subthalamus Basal Ganglia Subthalamic nucleus zona incerta Field of Forel H H 1 ansa lenticularis thalamic fasciculus H 2 lenticular fasciculus ﻣﻬﺪی ﺟﻼﻟی ﻣﺠﺪ https: //m-j-m. blog. ir