- Slides: 56
Deviance and Social Control
Norms are an important part of culture. They help us decide what behaviors are proper and improper in various settings. You may be following them without even realizing it. http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=kgso 3 Y-l 0 h 8 http: //improveverywhere. com/2006/08/19/slo-mohome-depot/
Internalization - The process by which a norm becomes part of an individual's personality - Thus conforming to society’s expectations - Expected behavior at a movie? ? ? - Sit in chair - Ringer turned off - No talking
Deviance- refers to behavior that departs from societal or group norms. Example Who do you think decides who and what is deviant? What is defined as deviant is agreed upon by consensus. The reaction the comes from the deviant act is key.
What is Deviance? Specific form of deviance: Criminal behavior- recognized by almost all members of society as deviant. Crime – the violation of rules that have been written into law. Wearing heavy make-up- considered deviant by some religious groups. Eating a snickers with your fork? http: //www. youtube. com/watch? NR=1&v=Ilzli. Gfdpp. M&feature= endscreen Deviance is not always clear cut such as robbery or assault. “what is deviant” varies from society to society and group to group. Often difficult to agree if in society such as the U. S.
Positive & Negative deviance: involves behavior that fails to meet accepted norms. Either reject, misinterpret, or are unaware of the norms. Positive deviance: involves behavior that overconforms to social expectations. Example: Rosa Parks
Social Control: ways to promote conformity to society’s norms. Society would be uncontrollable and unpredictable without social control. Ex. Stopping at red lights and receiving the correct amount of change.
2 types Social Control Internal: lies within the individual Developed during the socialization process. You do something because you know it’s the right thing to do or don’t do something because it is the wrong thing to do. Ex: Stealing External: is based on social sanctions- rewards or punishments that encourage conformity to social norms. Positive : awards or promotions Negative: criticism, fines, or imprisonment. Sanctions can also be formal or informal.
Review of Sanctions Positive sanctions Negative sanctions • Positive sanction: An action that rewards a particular kind of behavior • Negative sanction: A punishment or the threat of punishment used to enforce conformity. • Examples include: a teacher giving good grades, cheers from teammates • Examples include: a parking ticket, ridicule Formal sanctions Informal sanctions • Formal sanction: A reward or punishment given by a formal organization or regulatory agency • Informal sanction: A spontaneous expression of approval or disapproval given by an individual or group • Examples include: schools giving high or low grades, a business giving a raise or firing a worker • Examples include: standing ovations, gossip
Current Research in Sociology Death Penalty: The Ultimate Sanction This sanction has been used since ancient times to punish murderers and other criminals. Its morality is debated today. Many nations have banned the death penalty, though the United States still allows it. • Opposition to the death penalty arose during the Enlightenment, which resulted in limiting its use. • Critics claim the practice is immoral and ineffective, and cannot be administered fairly. • Venezuela became the first country to ban the practice. • Support for the death penalty remains strong. • By 2007, two-thirds of nations had banned the practice.
Breaking social control
CRIME…. Every 23. 1 seconds: One Violent Crime Every 32. 6 minutes: One Murder Every 5. 6 minutes: One Forcible Rape Every 1. 3 minutes: One Robbery Every 36. 9 seconds: One Aggravated Assault Every 3. 1 seconds: One Property Crime Every 14. 7 seconds: One Burglary Every 4. 5 seconds: One Larceny-theft Every 25. 5 seconds: One Motor Vehicle Theft The Crime Clock should be viewed with care. The most aggregate representation of UCR data, it conveys the annual reported crime experience by showing a relative frequency of occurrence of Part I offenses. It should not be taken to imply a regularity in the commission of crime. The Crime Clock represents the annual ratio of crime to fixed time intervals.
2009 The Crime Clock should be viewed with care. The most aggregate representation of UCR data, it conveys the annual reported crime experience by showing a relative frequency of occurrence of Part I offenses. It should not be taken to imply a regularity in the commission of crime. The Crime Clock represents the annual ratio of crime to fixed time intervals. Crime in the United States, 2009 U. S. Department of Justice — Federal Bureau of Investigation September 2010
Points of Emphasis Who commits crimes? Sex: Men are much more likely than women to be arrested. • Race: More than 2/3 of all people arrested are white. However, African Americans, who make up about 12 % of the population, account for nearly 30% of the arrests. • Age: Almost ½ of all arrests involve people under the age of 25. People younger than 35 account for nearly ¾ of all arrests. Who keeps track of all these crime statistics? The FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigations) publishes the UCR (Uniform Crime Reports) annually. Are these statistics 100% accurate? NO. Crimes not reported, victims may not come forward or want to file a report, officers reports not filed, officers have various reasons why/why not to submit a report. *Serious Crimes in America/Types of Crime worksheet
Functionalism and Deviance Section 2
What are costs and benefits of deviance? Functionalist perspective Different parts of society contribute to a stable whole Functionalists believe some deviance can contribute to the smooth operation of society Deviance has both + and – effects for society
Costs & Benefits of Deviance Benefit Costs • Deviance erodes trust and • Clarifies what norms are expected a society filled with suspicion cannot function • e. g. parents taken to court for smoothly neglect shows norm to care of children is important • Safety valve—way for • Deviance can cause teenagers to be different deviance in others • Brings about social change • Deviance is expensive— e. g. MLK, Jr & Civil Rights Movement cost resources & time • US $1. 7 trillion
How do we explain deviance (Functionalists) Strain Theory: Robert K. Merton Anomie is a social condition in which norms are weak, conflicting, or absent. • Strain theory is most likely to occur when there is a gap between culturally desirable goals, such as money and prestige, and a legitimate way of obtaining them. • Conformity is when people accept the goal and the means to achieve it.
How do people respond to strain? Conformity- NON DEVIANT RESPONSE Innovation- Accept cultural goals, uses illegal means to achieve them Ritualism- Rejects goal, but continues anyway Ex. Teacher who does not care about students Retreatism- Legitimate means and approved goals rejected Ex. Drug Dealing Ex. Skid Row alcoholics, homeless Rebellion- Reject success and approved means to achieve it Ex. Militia Groups
Merton’s Strain Theory Culturally Approved Socially Accepted Goal: Success Way to Succeed: Hard Work Conformity Response Accepts goal of success (Conform) Deviant Responses x Accepts goal of success (Innovation) x Rejects goal of success (Ritualism) x Rejects goal of success (Retreatism) x Rejects goal of success (Rebellion) x Examples
Merton’s Strain Theory Culturally Approved Socially Accepted Goal: Success Way to Succeed: Hard Work Conformity Response Deviant Responses Examples Accepts goal of success (Conform) Accepts hard work as the appropriate way to succeed Conformity- works hard to succeed Accepts goal of success (Innovation) Rejects hard work as the appropriate way to succeed Innovation- finds illegal ways to succeed Criminals, drug dealers Rejects goal of success (Ritualism) Accepts hard work as the appropriate way to succeed Ritualism- acts as if he wants to succeed but does not exert much effort Lacking American Education system……. . Unmotivated teacher, unmotivated student Rejects goal of success (Retreatism) Rejects hard work as the appropriate way to succeed Retreatism- drops out of the rate for success Alcoholics, drug addicts, bag ladies Rejects goal of success (Rebellion) Rejects hard work as the appropriate way to succeed Rebellionsubstitutes new way to achieve goal, new set of goals and means Militia group members that may live in isolation as they pursue the goal of changing society through deviant means Business executive, working hard at a low paying job
How do we explain deviance (Functionalists) Travis Hirchi’s Theory From Strain Theory Control Theory that compliance with social norms requires strong bonds between individuals and society. • Special Bonds control behavior • People want to conform • Fit in
Social Bond Theory Four basic elements of social bonds • Attachment-The stronger the belief, less likely you are to break norms. • Commitment- Belief that what you are buying into is true, then less likely you are to break norms. • Involvement-Building relationships and commitments builds attachment to norms. • Belief- Will not deviate if you believe it to be true.
Theories on Deviance How is deviance learned? (Interactionists) Differential association theory People learn deviance according to the number of deviant acts they are exposed to Social Settings
Differential Association Theory • Three characteristics: • 1) the ratio of deviant to non-deviant individuals • 2) Whether the deviant behavior is practice by significant others • 3) The age of exposure
Theories on Deviance Labeling Theory- that society creates deviants by identifying particular members as deviant. What are some you can name? ?
Did these children learn this behavior from their parents, peers, social setting or all of the above? How is deviance learned? A person who knows mostly deviants is more likely to learn deviant behavior (PEER PRESSURE) Younger children learn deviant behavior more quickly than older children
Are the degrees of deviance? Primary Deviance A person who engages in only isolates acts of deviance Secondary Deviance in which a person's life and identity are organized around breaking society's norms
What are the consequences of labeling? • Pain and suffering can occur • Stigma’s can develop • An undesirable train or label that is used to characterize an individual • Ex Convicts
Conflict Perspective • Competition and social inequality lead to deviance • Ruling class deems anything that threatens power to be deviant. • Keep power establish ideologies for others to follow. • EX. Slavery, Harsher punishment for Crack than Cocaine
Statistics support that African Americans and Latinos are dealt with more harshly than whites. WHY? ? ?
African Americans and Latinos are dealt with more harshly than whites. 1. No economic Resources to provide for legal representation. 2. Crimes against whites tend to be punished more severely 3. Victim Discounting
White Collar Crime But an estimated 100 Billion a year is lost in our economy to White Color Crime White Collar Crime-job related crimes committed by high status people Fun with Dick and Jane White Collar Crime
Review 7. 3 and 7. 4 Get into groups of 3 -4 and as a group respond to the following questions. 1. How is deviance learned? 2. Is deviance defined by the act or the individual? 3. Are there degrees of deviance? 4. What are the consequences of labeling? 5. What is the relationship between race, ethnicity, and crime? 6. Why are minorities treated so differently? 7. What are the costs of white collar crime? What kinds of punishment to the majority of white collar criminals receive?
Review 7. 3 and 7. 4 1. How is deviance learned? Most all deviance is learned by socialization, according to Differential association theory, the frequency and closeness the individual has to deviance the more likely they are to be deviant. 2. Is deviance defined by the act or the individual? It can be defined by both. An act of deviance can define a individual for life. An individual can be make their lifestyle deviant. (Secondary Deviance) 3. Are there degrees of deviance? Yes, Secondary and Primary.
4. What are the consequences of labeling? Once someone is labeled as deviant, people judge his/her actions in light of that label. Restricts Behavior. 5. What is the relationship between race, ethnicity, and crime? Certain Races, ethnicities are viewed deviant, even though there is no causal link between the two. 6. Why are minorities treated so differently? Racial Profiling, practice of assuming that nonwhite Americans are more likely to commit crimes Police- Police Discretion Court System-No economic Resources to provide for legal representation.
7. What are the costs of white collar crime? What kinds of punishment to the majority of white collar criminals receive? 400 Billion a year!!!! Additionally, erode trust on society. Usually light because of the perception of the crime. Even though this abuse can have greater consequences on society
7. 5 Crime and Punishment
Measuring Crime- acts in violation of the laws Crime increased sharply between the 1960 s and the 1990 s Violent crime rates are considerably higher in the U. S. than in most other industrialized countries The major source of crime statistics is the FBI’s Uniform Crime Reports, gathered from police departments across the country
UCR Statistics Nine types of crimes Murder Rape Robbery Aggravated assault Burglary Larceny-theft Motor vehicle theft Arson Hate crimes
One CRIME INDEX OFFENSE Every 3 seconds One VIOLENT CRIME Every 22 seconds One PROPERTY CRIME Every 3 seconds One MURDER Every 34 min. One BURGLARY Every 15 sec. One FORCIBLE RAPE Every 6 min. One LARCENY-THEFT Every 5 sec. One ROBBERY Every 60 sec. One MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT Every 27 sec. One AGGRAVATED ASSAULT Every 34 sec.
Crimes in the U. S. 1990 -1999 Type of Crime Number of Crimes Crime Rate per 100, 000 residents Percent Change in Crime Rate Percent Change in the Number of Crimes Violent Crime 1, 430, 690 524. 7 -28. 3 -21. 4 Murder 15, 530 5. 7 -39. 4 -33. 7 Forcible Rape 89, 110 32. 7 -20. 6 -13. 1 Robbery 409, 670 150. 2 -41. 6 -35. 9 Aggravated Assault 916, 380 336. 1 -20. 7 -13. 1 Property Crime 10, 284, 500 3, 742. 1 -26. 5 -19. 4 Burglary 2, 099, 700 770. 0 -37. 7 -31. 7 Larceny-Theft 6, 957, 400 2, 551. 4 -20. 1 -12. 4 Motor Vehicle Theft 1, 147, 300 420. 7 -36. 0 -29. 9
A deeper look…. Because murder rate receives the most publicity, it can be used to highlight the general, across the board reduction in crime One major reason for the downward crime trend is a recent reduction in juvenile crime
Reliability of UCR Statistics • Provide considerable information • Major strength: • experienced police officers can decide if the incident should be reported as a crime • Limitations • Tends to over represent the lower classes and undercount the middle and upper classes • Some crimes (amateur thefts, minor assaults) are not as likely to be reported as murder and auto theft • About 2/3 of crimes are not reported at all • White collar offenders are seldom included
Juvenile Crime Legal violations among those under 18 years of age Includes deviance only the young can commit Failing to attend school, underage drinking and smoking
Trends in Juvenile Crime on a downward decline…. . Arrest rate dropped by 68% Arrests for weapons violations dropped 33% Rape arrest rate dropped 31% Reasons: Decline in the demand for drugs Remaining crack gangs that provided guns have reached truces Repeat juvenile offenders have been given stiffer sentences Police are cracking down on illegal guns in the street
Approaches to Crime Control Criminal Justice System- system comprising institutions and processes responsible for enforcing criminal statuses Includes police, courts, and the correctional system 4 Different approaches Deterrence Retribution Incarceration Rehabilitation
1) Deterrence Discouraging criminal acts by threatening punishment Punishing convicted criminals will serve as an example to keep other people from committing crimes Considerable debate over its effectiveness Can work if potential lawbreakers know: 1) they are likely to get caught 2) punishment will be severe In the U. S. , punishment is not usually certain or severe, so deterrence does not have the effect that it could have Special Case: Death penalty Murder is extremely emotional and irrational, so capital punishment is not a deterrent
Do Americans believe that capital punishment deters criminals? 75% believe the death penalty can act as a deterrent to murder Of those who favor the death penalty, over 75% indicate they would continue to favor it even if confronted with evidence that it did not act as a deterrent and therefore did not lower the murder rate Revenge and a desire for retribution seem to contribute more to the support of capital punishment 2001: 66% of Americans support the death penalty (Gallup Poll)
Why does the attitude toward the death penalty vary? Race and ethnicity Over ¾ of whites 40% of African Americans 52% of Latinos Due in part to the fact that they are more likely to receive the death penalty African Americans comprise 13% of the population but make up 43% of death row inmates Racial minorities make up half of all inmates in U. S. prisons.
2) Retribution Punishment intended to make criminals pay compensation for their acts “eye for an eye, tooth for a tooth” Designated officials exact retribution Does not take personal vengeance into account, where people “take the law into their own hands”. The mother who shoots her son’s killer must also answer to society for her action
3) Incarceration A method of protecting society from criminals by keeping them in prisons U. S. has taken a tougher stance with the three strikes lawprison population greatly increased since 1990 Prison camps in other countries
4) Rehabilitation Process of changing or reforming a criminal through socialization Most prisons have programs aimed at giving prisoners both social and work skills 30 -60% of those released from penal institutions are sent back to prison in 2 -5 years Recidivism- a repetition of or return of criminal behavior Reasons: Basic nature of the offenders Influences of more hardened criminals The stigma of being an ex-convict
Current Research in Sociology Death Penalty: The Ultimate Sanction This sanction has been used since ancient times to punish murderers and other criminals. Its morality is debated today. Many nations have banned the death penalty, though the United States still allows it. • Opposition to the death penalty arose during the Enlightenment, which resulted in limiting its use. • Venezuela became the first country to ban the practice. • By 2007, two-thirds of nations had banned the practice. • Critics claim the practice is immoral and ineffective, and cannot be administered fairly. • Support for the death penalty remains strong.