DEVELOPMENTS IN UNDERWATER DIVING People have been diving

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DEVELOPMENTS IN UNDERWATER DIVING People have been diving without mechanical aids (0) …since…. .

DEVELOPMENTS IN UNDERWATER DIVING People have been diving without mechanical aids (0) …since…. . ancient times. In those days, divers for pearls or mainly went underwater to search (9) ………. sponges. Various ways of supplying divers with air, and so permitting them to stay underwater for long periods of time, over have been tried for well (10) ………. two thousand years.

is / was Alexander the Great (11) …………………. said to have gone kind /

is / was Alexander the Great (11) …………………. said to have gone kind / type / sort underwater in an early (12) ………………. …. of diving machine, and Aristotle talked about apparatus (13) which / that …………………. . . …. permitted divers to breathe underwater. They say that Alexander the Great went underwater. It is said that Alexander the Great went underwater. Alexander the Great is said to have gone underwater.

until / till It was not (14) ………………. . . the beginning of the

until / till It was not (14) ………………. . . the beginning of the 18 th century that more advanced equipment was developed. In 1717, the first practical diving machine, or ‘diving as bell’ (15) ………. it was called, was invented. This was a small wooden room with an open bottom, glass windows at the top let to (16) ………. in light, and a supply of air coming through leather tubes. Something similar, made of steel, is in use today for underwater work, such as building the foundations of bridges.

AS or LIKE? + NOME o PRONOME =COME I work LIKE my father. I

AS or LIKE? + NOME o PRONOME =COME I work LIKE my father. I work AS a teacher. What a beautiful beach! It’s LIKE Sardinia. Rome is nice AS a place to visit, but I wouldn’t live there. I wish I had a car LIKE yours. I received this watch AS a birthday present. LIKE simile a, uguale a AS in qualità di, nei panni di, nel ruolo di refer to, use, be known, regard, describe

AS or LIKE? + NOME o PRONOME =COME Certi sport, COME la boxe, possono

AS or LIKE? + NOME o PRONOME =COME Certi sport, COME la boxe, possono essere pericolosi. in qualità di, nei panni di, nel ruolo di simile a, uguale a Some sports, LIKE boxing, can be dangerous. LIKE per esempio = SUCH AS

AS or LIKE? + FRASE =COME Avresti dovuto farlo COME ti ho detto io.

AS or LIKE? + FRASE =COME Avresti dovuto farlo COME ti ho detto io. You should have done it AS I told you. Non ho toccato niente. Ho lasciato tutto COM’era. I didn’t touch anything. I left everything AS it was. AS colloquial You should have done it LIKE I told you. I didn’t touch anything. I left everything LIKE it was.

SOME PRACTICE LIKE That large cat looks ………………… a cheetah. The new penguin area

SOME PRACTICE LIKE That large cat looks ………………… a cheetah. The new penguin area is very big – it’s ………………… LIKE an Olympic swimming pool. Mary regards her cat ……………. . a member of her family. AS LIKE She could photograph the animals just ……………… a professional. AS He went to the fancy dress party dressed ……………. . a gorilla. AS Working with animals is OK ………………. . a temporary job but I wouldn’t do it permanently. AS She dances ………………… she sings: really badly! This meat is awful! It tastes ……………… cat food. LIKE I love wild animals, ………………… sharks, bears and LIKE leopards.

AS si usa anche…. . nel comparativo di uguaglianza This train isn’t AS fast

AS si usa anche…. . nel comparativo di uguaglianza This train isn’t AS fast AS the Eurostar. . . nell’espressione SAME AS Their house is the same AS ours. AS non vuol dire solo COME. AS I was walking down High Street, I met Mr Jones. =MENTRE WHILE AS I was very tired, I went to bed as soon as I got home. =POICHÉ SINCE

LISTENING – PART 2 9 My family and I have just had an amazing

LISTENING – PART 2 9 My family and I have just had an amazing holiday - we went to Canada so that we could go dog-sledding! If you've never seen a dog sled before, it's basically a big vehicle that has strips of wood under it instead of wheels. It can be pulled along across the snow with you riding on it! Teams of dogs called huskies pull it along and it's amazing fun! We arrived to find our accommodation was based in a small village, but there were quite a few shops and restaurants, and other things like that because it was also a ski resort. My brother and I were really pleased about that as we needed something to do in the evenings.

LISTENING – PART 2 10 11 The dog-sledding centre was slightly outside the village,

LISTENING – PART 2 10 11 The dog-sledding centre was slightly outside the village, in a valley, which was really beautiful so I got plenty of photos of it. There was a steep slope with a forest on one side, and a high mountain on the other. On the day we went dog-sledding we arrived at the centre to find a group of other people already there and nearly 50 dogs waiting for us, all harnessed to their sleds and ready to get started – in fact, they could hardly wait! We were a bit nervous of them to begin with as they looked quite fierce, and they were very loud with the barking! But in fact we soon discovered they were all very sociable – they really loved meeting and being around visitors. We were allowed to go up to the difference sleds and stroke the dogs. They were amazing to look at, with the curly tails, and many had bright blue eyes.

LISTENING – PART 2 12 13 First our leader gave us a brief history

LISTENING – PART 2 12 13 First our leader gave us a brief history talk, followed by a short introduction to the dogs we’d be using, and finally a safety lesson, which I was very relieved to get, as by this time I was wondering how I’d manage to drive eight excited dog through the snow! You had to be at least 15 if you wanted to be the driver so my 11 year-old brother was a bit disappointed he couldn't drive, but he still loved being around the dogs. I felt a bit sorry for him but was pleased I was 16 and could get the chance to do it.

LISTENING – PART 2 14 15 A few minutes later, we were ready to

LISTENING – PART 2 14 15 A few minutes later, we were ready to go, the dogs straining to get started even while the sleds were still tied down. My brother and I were in one, and mum and dad in another. All went well for a while, and it was great fun. First our sled was pulled by the dogs along very snowy path, then we turned a corner, and they raced down a hill – but before we knew it, we were crossing a frozen lake, which was scary! But luckily we made it to the other side! The dogs were running amazingly fast by then, and as we were going up a hill, my brother jumped off the sled and tried to run alongside them – but he just couldn't keep up! I soon discovered, as well, that while I was in control of the sled, it wasn't a good idea to stand up as it meant I’d probably fall off the sled and once I’d let go, the dogs might just run off without us. But it was the most amazing fun, and you could see the dogs loved it too.

LISTENING – PART 2 16 I'd expected we might see some wildlife while we

LISTENING – PART 2 16 I'd expected we might see some wildlife while we were flying along. Of course, because of the harsh winter there, a lot of creatures, like reptiles, can't survive. But there are certainly bears in the area, which luckily we didn't come across! I was really hoping to see some wolves, though, but sadly they were no sightings. We did hear them one night back in the village. But the only creatures we actually spotted from the sled were deer, and a few mountain goats and sheep, which were very good at climbing!

LISTENING – PART 2 17 Of course, it was really freezing cold during the

LISTENING – PART 2 17 Of course, it was really freezing cold during the trip. Everyone in the family had brought really warm clothes, but luckily we also managed to hire some winter boots, which were essential for walking on the frozen snow without slipping over – or getting very cold feet! The special snow trousers we had were useful, too.

LISTENING – PART 2 18 Then, when the sled ride was over, we went

LISTENING – PART 2 18 Then, when the sled ride was over, we went off and saw the sights. We watched as some husky races were just coming to an end and took photos of the winners. Then we walked on and had a look round some ice sculptures, which we all agreed were totally amazing, and reminded me of the castles that my brother and I built one year on holiday in the sand!

16 ways to de-stress 1) You should take off your watch. 2) You should

16 ways to de-stress 1) You should take off your watch. 2) You should switch off your mobile phone. 3) You shouldn’t eat your breakfast on your feet – you should sit down and enjoy it. 4) You should put on your most comfortable clothes. 5) You shouldn’t run after the bus – you should let it go. 6) You should smell the roses. 7) You should give up the gym. 8) You should fall in love. 9) You should only switch on your television if there’s something you really want to watch. 10) You should throw away clothes you never wear. 11) You should have a laugh. 12) You should hang up your clothes when you take them off. 13) You should spend two minutes doing absolutely nothing. 14) You should walk. 15) You should only do the ironing if you love it. 16) You should put on your favourite music and turn up the volume.

PHRASAL VERBS I GET UP early in the morning. Please STAND UP! Last night

PHRASAL VERBS I GET UP early in the morning. Please STAND UP! Last night I WENT OUT with Mary. My car BROKE DOWN yesterday. INTRANSITIVE

PHRASAL VERBS Can you SWITCH OFF the light, please? I had to FILL IN

PHRASAL VERBS Can you SWITCH OFF the light, please? I had to FILL IN a form. They CALLED the meeting OFF. Can I THROW it AWAY? TRANSITIVE SEPARABLE

SEPARABLE PHRASAL VERBS Please SWITCH the light OFF. Please SWITCH OFF the light. Please

SEPARABLE PHRASAL VERBS Please SWITCH the light OFF. Please SWITCH OFF the light. Please SWITCH it OFF. Please SWITCH OFF it.

PHRASAL VERBS I am LOOKING FOR my keys. She TAKES AFTER her father. This

PHRASAL VERBS I am LOOKING FOR my keys. She TAKES AFTER her father. This book DEALS WITH Ireland in the 90 s. Our neighbours LOOK DOWN ON us. I haven’t got time to KEEP UP WITH the news. If a verb is followed by MORE THAN ONE word, then you can be sure it is an inseparable phrasal verb. TRANSITIVE INSEPARABLE

TELL OFF SEPARABLE

TELL OFF SEPARABLE

CHAT UP SEPARABLE

CHAT UP SEPARABLE

LOOK AFTER INSEPARABLE

LOOK AFTER INSEPARABLE

(not) PUT UP WITH INSEPARABLE

(not) PUT UP WITH INSEPARABLE

LOOK UP SEPARABLE

LOOK UP SEPARABLE

GIVE UP SEPARABLE but also INTRANSITIVE

GIVE UP SEPARABLE but also INTRANSITIVE

SHOW OFF SEPARABLE but also INTRANSITIVE

SHOW OFF SEPARABLE but also INTRANSITIVE

TAKE OFF SEPARABLE INTRANSITIVE

TAKE OFF SEPARABLE INTRANSITIVE

PUT OUT SEPARABLE

PUT OUT SEPARABLE

RUN OUT OF INSEPARABLE

RUN OUT OF INSEPARABLE

CALL OFF SEPARABLE

CALL OFF SEPARABLE