Development of Problem Solving Problem Solving n Definition

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Development of Problem Solving

Development of Problem Solving

Problem Solving n Definition- overcoming one or more obstacles to achieve a specific goal

Problem Solving n Definition- overcoming one or more obstacles to achieve a specific goal n n Rules, strategies, memory and reasoning are often required Evident at about 8 months n 4 th sensorimotor substage Coordination of primary circular reactions n Moving an object to get at a toy n n Truly goal oriented behavior is evident in 85% of two year olds, 90% by 32 months

Analogical Reasoning n Definition- Using something you already know to help you understand something

Analogical Reasoning n Definition- Using something you already know to help you understand something you don’t know yet n n n A: B: : C: ? Piaget theorized this ability does not develop until early teens Goswami theorizes it may be present at birth n Relational primacy hypothesis

Development of Analogical Reasoning n Chen, Sanchez and Campbell found evidence of AR in

Development of Analogical Reasoning n Chen, Sanchez and Campbell found evidence of AR in 1 yr olds (1997) n 29% solved the first problem on their own n Those who didn’t were shown by a parent 43% solved the second problem n 67% solved the third n

Development of Analogical Reasoning n Perceptual similarity is easier and develops earlier n n

Development of Analogical Reasoning n Perceptual similarity is easier and develops earlier n n Magic staff to metal rod is easier than magic carpet to paper for preschoolers Relational similarity is evident by 4 but improves during early and middle childhood n In a picture task with 25% success by chance performance was 59% at four, 66% at 5 and 94% by age 9 (Goswami & Brown, 1990)

Factors Affecting Analogical Reasoning n Knowledge n n Relating relationships to prior knowledge aids

Factors Affecting Analogical Reasoning n Knowledge n n Relating relationships to prior knowledge aids in use of relational AR Metacognition –thinking about thinking n Implicit instruction about how to think about problems can effectively help children solve them

Strategy Use n Goal directed processes used to aid task performance n n Present

Strategy Use n Goal directed processes used to aid task performance n n Present in rudimentary from as early as 8 months though they increase in complexity and effectiveness as children mature Develops in steps

Steps in Strategy Development 1. 2. 3. Mediational deficiency- inability to either produce or

Steps in Strategy Development 1. 2. 3. Mediational deficiency- inability to either produce or use a strategy Production deficiency- children can use a strategy effectively but only do so when prompted Utilization deficiency- children produce and effectively use a strategy but gain no benefit n 4. Newly learned effective strategies may temporarily actually reduce efficiency in problem solving Effective and efficient strategy use resulting in improved performance

Use of Rules n n Children use increasingly complex rules for solving problems Learning

Use of Rules n n Children use increasingly complex rules for solving problems Learning rules is possible as young as 16 months, but becomes much easier with increasing age n n Inducing without verbal instruction is easier for toddlers and older children than for 2. 5 to 5 yr olds Children younger than 3 struggle to follow an arbitrary rule system n n They know and can articulate them just can’t use them They cannot switch rules and effectively inhibit old rules until 4 n Appears to be an inhibition issue (Zelazo et al 1995, 1996)

Planning n Planning ability improves dramatically during early and middle childhood n n n

Planning n Planning ability improves dramatically during early and middle childhood n n n 3 yr olds can create and articulate simple plans for known problems and processes 4 year olds can plan to prevent mistakes and mishaps Planning is difficult and takes time and is therefore used only when not planning won’t work – even in adults n Requires inhibition of currently active behavior

More Formal Reasoning n Definition- Reasoning ONLY based on the form of the argument

More Formal Reasoning n Definition- Reasoning ONLY based on the form of the argument n Syllogisms 3 yr olds do well when the problem matches knowledge n They fail when the problem contradicts knowledge n Fantasy syllogisms can be solved by 3 yr olds if given prior to those where knowledge plays a role n n Propositional logic n Late developing n n 7 year olds can do it only if the correct conclusion matches prior knowledge Only the best educated adults can solve invalid problems