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Development of Christianity
Branches of Christianity Introduction Christianity has undergone many changes over the course of history. Though it began in ancient times as one church, it has divided into many separate churches. Each with its own set of beliefs and practices. For non-Christians, understanding the differences among Christian churches can be difficult. The most significant division within Christianity occurred in 1054 CE when the Eastern and Western churches separated. The Eastern church, as seen on the map (on the next slide) was composed of the churches of Greece, Russia, Eastern Europe, and Western Asia. The Capital of the Western church was Rome, and the Roman Pope, or Bishop of Rome, claimed authority over both churches. The Western church believed that the Pope was the person closest to God and, therefore, most capable of leading Christians. But the Eastern church did not believe the Pope should have power over them. This conflict, when added to the disputes of the past, finally caused the churches to split. From then on, the Roman Catholic Church has been led by the Pope. In the 16 th century, a movement called the Reformation caused a split which divided the Roman Catholic Church. At the time, there were many independent Christian groups. Although they did not all share the same beliefs, they each rejected the central authority of the Pope and came to be known as Protestants. It is difficult to speak about Protestantism as one religion since it has divided itself into hundreds of separate sects. They include such groups as the Quakers, Baptists, Methodists, and Presbyterians. Each of these branches of Christianity maintains different beliefs and practices in different ways. The chart (after the map) will help you follow the branches of Christian Churches.
Branches of Christianity
Early Christian Communities: – They gathered together informally in family groups to worship and celebrate the Eucharist. – Later in the 2 nd century some Christians donated houses which became house-churches for Christian worship. – Christians had a close fellowship, they shared their belongings with one another. – Christians put their belief into practice.
The Development of Early Christian communities • The Jesus movement which lasted from approximately 30 -60 CE describes a period immediately following the death of Jesus where the infant Christian community saw itself as a sect which existed within the Jewish tradition • Little emphasis was placed on laying down the infrastructure of the movement because the followers believed that they were living in the last days before the Parousia, the second coming of Christ. • Small groups of Palestinian Jews followed Jesus through the preaching of disciples such as Peter in and around Palestine • Larger groups of Diaspora Jews and Gentiles responded to the preaching of Paul • Paul is typically considered as the second founder of Christianity because he helped to set up the structure of this new religion and hence confirm the status of Christianity vis-à-vis Judaism
The Development of Early Christian communities - continued • The Council of Jerusalem in 49 CE formally resolved the debate which divided the Pauline and Palestinian groups. The Council accepted Paul's argument that Gentiles need not undergo circumcision in order to become Christians. This Council is an attempt to overcome differences within the infant Church. Despite the formal resolution of the problem the tensions between the two early communities continued for some time • After the Council of Jerusalem in 49 CE Christians regarded themselves as separate from the Jewish Religion • The New Testament period which lasted from approximately 45 to 100 CE saw the gradual formalisation and centralisation of the Christian Churches which meant that this new religion was increasingly seen as distinct and separate from Judaism. The need to institutionalise the charism of the movement came about as a result of the delay of the Parousia and the death of the Apostles • From 49 CE until 300 CE (2 nd & 3 rd century) the Church faced increasing persecutions from the Roman Government and the Jews. This does not mean that the persecution was continual throughout this time as there were periods of peace
Christians were persecuted because: – they refused to worship the Roman Emperor as a god, – they met in secret and were protective about their worship – nonmembers were not allowed to attend. This led to many false accusations and misunderstandings. – the Roman Empire was in decline, there was moral decay, unemployment, food shortages and the threat of war. Christians were the ideal scapegoats. – being Christian – you could face arrest, imprisonment, torture and death. This was the age of the Martyrs.
Early Christian Communities - Questions C - Outline why Christianity separate from the Jewish Religion C - Outline why Christians wouldn’t worship the Roman Emperor C - Identify why Christians were made the ideal scapegoat
Early Christian Communities - Answers
OHP 1 1. Roman Emperor Constantine was facing a battle against one of his rivals in 312 CE 2. 3. He believed the God of the Christians On the eve of battle, Constantine had a dream of a glowing cross on which the words were written “ In this sign you will conquer” had intervened and given him a victory in battle. Edict of Milan P 5. 4. All banners and shields now have the Chi Rho on then. In 313 CE Constantine and the Eastern Roman Emperor Licinius, issued a policy know as the Edict of Milan, which guaranteed complete freedom of religion to all in the Empire, including Christians.
OHP 2 Constantine moved the capital of his empire from Rome to Constantinople. TURKEY Constantinople Rome ITA LY Constantinople was an ideal spot as it was, and still is, the natural cross roads of trade and culture.
Persecution to Freedom – Questions S - Outline what was the edict of Milan? C - Describe the impact the edict of Milan had on Christianity? Optional Extension E - Discuss the effect the decision that Constantine made when he moved the capital city to Constantinople.
Persecution to Freedom – Answers
OHP 3 The Great Schism Constantinople Antioch Rome Carthage Western Empire . Jerusalem Alexandria Eastern Empire
THE RIFT BETWEEN EAST AND WEST 1. Wording in the Nicene Creed was changed Latin (West) "who proceeds from the Father“ added “and the Son” 2. East rejected the view of primacy which gave the Pope supreme power throughout the Christian Church. 3. Differences in language (East – Greek, West – Latin), customs and religious practices. 4. Liturgy in the West was simple compared to the lavish liturgy of the East. differences in style 5. Enormous physical difficulties: communication between Rome and Constantinople made difficult because of distances.
THE GREAT SCHISM NOTES received in previous unit “The Church in History” The Schism is the formal and willful separation from the unity of the Church In the seventh century only two of the five principal sites (sees- place of learning) remained – these being Rome (West) and Constantinople (East). The other three principal sites (Jerusalem, Antioch & Alexandria) where now supporters of the new religion Islam. However there was unrest between the authorities of each city, the Pope in Rome (West) and the Patriarch in Constantinople (East). This unrest had begun in second century where the belief that Rome was the centre for authority, guidance in theological debates and that Peter had established the Roman Church.
THE GREAT SCHISM continued Furthermore the Unity between East and West was damaged by a number of arguments: The Date of Easter Churches in Asia Minor (East) had kept Easter according to the Jewish calendar so that it coincided with the Passover. Roman Churches (West) had kept if on the Sunday closest to the fourteenth day of the Jewish month of Nisan. Filioque (and the Son) The church in the west added a phrase to its creed that indicated the Holy Spirit proceeded from both the Father and the Son. The church in the East held to the belief that the Spirit proceeded from the Father through the Son. This mater seemingly trivial was considered of vital importance. Icons In 726 Eastern Emperor, Leo III (East) banned icons (images of Jesus, Mary or the saints) for purpose of worship. Later the ban was lifted by Pope Gregory II (West), to display his independence of the Emperor.
THE GREAT SCHISM continued Other Differences • The East had maintained its scriptures in Greek while the West had translated then into Latin. • The ritual of the churches differed in external form and there were some difference in practice. The West celebrated the sacred meal of the Eucharist with unleavened bread, the East with leavened bread. The liturgy of the west was simple in comparison to the lavish liturgy of the East. • The Patriarch of Constantinople (East) was not willing to accept the claim by the Pope of Rome (West) for control of all Christianity. • The Eastern Church believed that Christianity should be controlled by a council of important leaders • Physical difficulties: communication between Rome and Constantinople was mad difficult because of the distance. Cultural, Liturgical and Doctrinal differences developed with the two Churches no longer understanding each other. 1054 the Pope of Rome sent an ambassador (legate) to Patriarch of Constantinople who refused to meet him. The Patriarch of Constantinople was excommunicated for his actions and thus began the Schism between East and West
OHP 4 JESUS EARLY CHURCH (a time of persecution) 313 Constantine - Edict of Milan GREAT SCHISM ( 1054 CE) WESTERN CATHOLIC EASTERN ORTHODOX Pope in Rome Patriarch of Constantinople Differences
GREAT SCHISM ( 1054 CE) Differences Complete the table below WESTERN CATHOLIC EASTERN ORTHODOX
The Rift between East and West Place the correct information under the correct headings. Add any other information that you gather. Western Catholic Eastern Orthodox Icons Unleavened bread Leaven bread Monks wore the tonsure (their heads were shaved in the centre). Monks did not cut their hair. Bishops, monks and priest were celibate. Bishops and monks were celibate. Priests could marry. Language of the Mass was Greek. Language of the Mass was Latin. Liturgy was a simple style. Liturgy was lavish and elaborate. Pope Patriarch of Constantinople
The Great Schism- Questions Complete one S questions and one C-question. S 1 - List reasons for the Schism S 2 - What city became the centre of the Orthodox church? S 3 - What city became the centre of the Catholic church? C 1 - Outline one argument that caused disunity. C 2 -Explain the differences in the liturgy between East & West Optional Extension E- Explain how the Schism may have been prevented
The Great Schism- Answers
Background to the Reformation Middle ages 1400 – 1650 • Europe was in turmoil. • Christian Church had once been the stable centre of European life – it now began to falter. • Relationships between Pope and the kings of Europe changed – kings now wanted to control the Pope. Papal Theory Imperial Theory God Pope Emperor • Selling of indulgences
Background to the Reformation Middle ages 1400 – 1650 continued • The Black Death – 1347 – – towns were wiped out many Priests died administering to the sick shortage of priests new priests poorly educated – selection was hasty and often illadvised – hence the quality of priesthood declined • Battles over papacy raged – two people claiming to be Pope. • Italy was torn apart by wars and inquisition • Problems with clergy – concubinage – pluralism – nepotism
Causes of the Reformation o Abuses occurring in the Catholic Church. • Clerical exemptions from civil law. • Corrupt and uneducated clergy. • Rivalry between religious orders. o Spirituality • For some, the Protestant reformation was a quest for a new spirituality. o Money • Taxation to support the papacy and clerics was excessive and often corrupt. o Papacy • There were corrupt Popes.
Causes of the Reformation continued o Power of Kings. Conflict between religious and state leaders. Kings had the power to appoint the higher clergy who become the King’s men in Church robes. o New learning. • Bible was translated into Greek, making it more accessible to the people. • The printing press made it more accessible, reducing the dependence on the clergy for the Christian message.
The Reformation NOTES received in previous unit “The Church in History” The world of the late medieval Roman Catholic Church from which the 16 th-century Reformers emerged was a complex one. Over the centuries the church, particularly in the office of the papacy, had become deeply involved in the political life of Western Europe. Abuses such as the sale of indulgences (or spiritual privileges) by the clergy and other charges of corruption undermined the church's spiritual authority. Religious purists in the agrarian hinterland of the West objected strongly to the new secular or materialist spirit growing up with the Renaissance. One of these was the German professor-priest Martin Luther who in 1517 issued a challenge the church over this new interest in worldly affairs. He wanted the church to return to the pure (spiritual) ways of the early church--and back away from all this recent interest in power and wealth-which was rapidly corrupting it. Also, he wanted faith initiatives to be returned to the individual believer. Priesthood belonged to the believer--not to the religious hierarchy. To press home this challenge, Luther translated the Bible into German--to give the common people access to all priestly authority: the Word of God. Martin Luther claimed that what distinguished him from previous reformers was that while they attacked corruption in the life of the church, he went to theological root of the problem—the perversion of the church's doctrine of redemption and grace. In his Ninety-five Theses, he attacked the indulgence system, insisting that the pope had no authority over purgatory and that the doctrine of the merits of the saints had no foundation in the gospel. . Here lay the key to Luther's concerns for the ethical and theological reform of the church: Scripture alone is authoritative (sola sciptura) and justification is by faith (sola fide), not by works. While he did not intend to break with the Catholic Church, a confrontation with the papacy was not long in coming. In 1521 Luther was excommunicated; what began as an internal reform movement had become a fracture in western Christendom. .
The Reformation continued Irritated, the Church told him to cease his challenge. But he refused to yield. When princely political interests came to his aid--his rebellion exploded. The "Lutheran" movement began spreading across the north of Germany. It would soon overtake Scandinavia. Medieval Europe, or what was left of it, began rapidly to fall into a state of civil war. The Reformation movement within Germany diversified almost immediately, and other reform impulses arose independently of Luther. Huldrych Zwingli built a Christian theocracy in Zürich in which church and state joined for the service of God. Zwingli agreed with Luther in the centrality of the doctrine of justification by faith, but he espoused a different understanding of the Holy Communion. Luther had rejected the Catholic Church's doctrine of transubstantiation, according to which the bread and wine in Holy Communion became the actual body and blood of Christ. According to Luther's notion, the body of Christ was physically present in the elements because Christ is present everywhere, while Zwingli claimed that entailed a spiritual presence of Christ and a declaration of faith by the recipients.
The Reformation continued Another important form of Protestantism is Calvinism, named for John Calvin, a French lawyer who fled France after his conversion to the Protestant cause. In Basel, Switzerland, Calvin brought out the first edition of his Institutes of the Christian Religion in 1536, the first systematic, theological paper of the new reform movement. Calvin agreed with Luther's teaching on justification by faith. Calvin also stressed the doctrine of predestination and interpreted Holy Communion as a spiritual partaking of the body and blood of Christ. Calvin began to assemble protestant scholars and teachers who would take the movement back to their home provinces. The Reformation spread to other European countries over the course of the 16 th century. By mid century, Lutheranism dominated northern Europe. Eastern Europe offered a seedbed for even more radical varieties of Protestantism, because kings were weak, nobles strong, and cities few, and because religious pluralism had long existed. The "Reformed" movement was well planted in the towns and cities of England, Scotland, Netherlands, France, Western Germany, Bohemia, Hungary--and even parts of Poland Spain (where it later got eradicated by the Catholic counter-reformation). Spain and Italy were to be the great centres of the Counter-Reformation, and Protestantism never gained a strong foothold there. Bibliography www. newgenevacenter. org/west/reformation. htm http: //www. britannica. com/eb/article-9063023/Reformation
The Reformation Polka View “Reformation Polka” Video downloaded with this presentation “Explaining the Reformation Polka” handout can be borrowed from your teacher, containing Lyrics & Explanation.
The Reformation - Questions Complete one S-questions and two C-question. S-List reasons for the reformation S – Identify what were the 95 Theses C – Outline what was the Reformation C - Define Transubstantiation C – Describe what was Luther’s main concern about the Church? Optional Extension E – Write your own Reformation song
The Reformation - Answers
The English Reformation NOTES received in previous unit “The Church in History In England the Reformation's roots were both political and religious. The English Reformation began in 1534 when King Henry VIII (1509 -1547) despaired of obtaining a male heir to succeed him on the throne from his existing wife, Catherine of Aragon. Therefore, he requested Pope Clement VII to annul his marriage to Catherine. Since Catherine objected and was, furthermore, the aunt of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, the Pope hesitated. Impatient with the delay, Henry acted by repudiating Papal authority and setting up the Anglican Church as the State Church of England with the King as "Protector and Only Supreme Head of the Church and Clergy of England" (the supreme head). At the time, Henry did not intend to create a Protestant church along the lines evolving on the continent under the influence of the moderate German, Martin Luther, or more radical reformers such as the Frenchman, John Calvin. He only wanted to be the supreme head of an English Catholic Church. Nevertheless, Protestant ideas infiltrated England Scotland, and Protestant churches were organized, thus setting the stage for 150 years of religious conflict between Catholics and Protestants, and between subsets of the Protestants.
The English Reformation continued In spite of its political implications, the reorganization of the church permitted the beginning of religious change in England, which included the preparation of a liturgy in English, the Book of Common Prayer. In Scotland in the 1500 s, John Knox, who spent time in Geneva and was greatly influenced by John Calvin, led the establishment of Presbyterianism, which made possible the eventual union of Scotland with England. About the same time the Puritan movement, also Calvinist in origin, came to notice in England as the result of insistence by Queen Elizabeth I (1558 -1603). Throughout the 1600 s English monarchs, except for two brief, bloody and unsuccessful attempts to restore Catholicism, sought primarily to assure the supremacy of the State Church of England by enforcing conformity with Anglican doctrine and practice. At the same time, they were engaged in threatening confrontations with a Parliament that increasingly challenged the right of the King to make laws, decide legal cases, and enforce religious conformity and levy taxes. Bibliography http: //elane. stanford. edu/wilson/Text/3 d. html http: //www. britannica. com/eb/article-9063023/Reformation
Three strands of the Reformation o Luther (Catholic monk, taught Scripture at the University of Wittenberg) Important doctrines. • Sola Scripture. (Scripture alone) He denied everything that could not be backed up by scripture. • Retained only two sacraments, Baptism and Eucharist. • Introduced the vernacular into the Eucharist. (Catholic Church used Latin until the 1960’s). • Believed in the real presence (Christ is truly present in the Eucharist) but denied Transubstantiation. (That the bread and wine is changed into the actual body and blood of Christ in the Eucharist). o English Reformation • After failing to get an annulment, Henry VIII declared himself head of the Church in England. • Basically supported all Catholic doctrines except the supremacy of the Pope. • Protestant doctrines only accepted after Henry’s death. • English reformation completed under Elizabeth I (Henry’s daughter). A religion blending Catholic, Lutheran and Calvinist elements. o Calvinism • Calvin (A Frenchman who settled in Geneva) shaped a third reformation tradition. • The rigorous pursuit of moral righteousness was a primary feature. • John Knox carried Calvinism to Scotland where it became Presbyterianism.
Counter Reformation • The Catholic Church underwent reform, especially through the Council of Trent which renewed church life and discipline and cemented teachings on scripture, sacraments and the means of salvation. • Inner and outward renewal for Catholics where in the form of moral and doctrine renewal, and the reinforcement of the importance of scripture and tradition as sources of God’s salvation. • Clarification of the catholic Church’s belief in the seven sacraments • Condemned abuse by priests and bishops • Established seminaries for great education of priests • Reformed prayer books and catechisms • Emergence of new religious orders such as the Benedictines, Augustinian, Franciscans, Dominicans, Jesuits and cathusians.
Comparison of Christian Denominations Use the following information to complete worksheet Luther Key event 95 Theses posted in 15171. Humans are depraved. Faith alone justifies. 2. The Bible, not the Pope is the centre of authority. Individual interpretation of the Bible. 3. Accepts Baptism and Eucharist as the only sacraments. 4. Believe that bread and wine and Body and blood co - exist in the Eucharist. 5. Rejects: Holy days, fast days, honouring saints, indulgences, rosary, monasticism. Calvin Key event Institutes of the Christian Religion published in 15361. Human nature since Adam’s fall is utterly depraved. Some are predestined for salvation. Christ died for the Elect. 2. Rejects whatever cannot be found in the Bible. 3. Accepts Baptism and Eucharist as the only sacraments. 4. Christ is only spiritually present in the Eucharist. 5. Rejects: vestments, altar, images, organs, hymns.
Comparison of Christian Denominations Anglicanism Key event Henry VIII established the Church of England in 1534 2. The King (or Queen) is the head of the Church. 3. Belief in the seven sacraments including the priest hood. 4. 5. Accepts most Catholic beliefs and practices. Catholicism Key event. The Council of Trent in 1545 - 1563. 1. Faith and good works is our means of Salvation. 2. The supremacy of the Pope is reaffirmed. 3. Seven sacraments including reconciliation and marriage 4. Belief in Transubstantiation defined. 5. Rejected corrupt behaviour but redefined most beliefs. eg Purgatory, non divorce.
Differences between the Churches have centred on: • Belief about Baptism • How the Churches celebrate Eucharist • Different kinds of ministry (clergy)
OHP 10 WESTERN CATHOLIC ROMAN CATHOLIC REFORMATION (16 th Century) Luther PROTESTANT Calvin Henry VIII Zwingli The Christian Churches that developed have been influenced by either one or more of the above characters.
The Reformation & English Reformation - Questions Complete one M-questions and two C-question. M- Identify who was Luther? M – Identify who was John Calvin M – Identify who was Henry VIII C – Outline what was the English Reformation C- Outline different practices regarding sacraments C- Describe Henry VIII’s problem with the Catholic Church Optional Extension E-Explain how the Catholic Church responded to the reformist movement E-Imagine if the Reformation had not occurred. Predict the effect on the Catholic Church today.
The Reformation & English Reformation - Answers
Main Steams of Christianity Today
Main Steams of Christianity Today Question - With reference to the previous diagram account for changes in Christianity that have produced the Main Streams of Christianity. Answer
OHP 11 Catholic Church Lutheran Calvinism Anglican Anabaptists Reformed Churches Methodist Baptists Quakers Amish Presbyterian Pentecostal Congregational Uniting Church
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The Reformation Summarize what you have learnt