Derivatives and Securitization Both Derivatives and Securitization represent

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Derivatives and Securitization Both Derivatives and Securitization represent risk-transfer tools derived from underlying assets

Derivatives and Securitization Both Derivatives and Securitization represent risk-transfer tools derived from underlying assets Asset Securitization in East Asia ASEAN+3 Workshop Shanghai National Accounting Institute Shanghai 9. November 2005 Oliver Fratzscher World Bank Page

Outline of Presentation Hypothesis: OTC derivative markets are necessary for securitization to be sound

Outline of Presentation Hypothesis: OTC derivative markets are necessary for securitization to be sound and efficient (not sufficient, A+B+C also necessary) 1. 2. 3. 4. What are Securitization and Derivatives ? How large are Asian derivative markets today ? Which building blocks are necessary ? What sequence is needed to develop derivatives ? 5. Which are key technical & prudential policy issues? Page 2

1. What is Securitization ? A specialized OTC derivatives product § § Securitization is

1. What is Securitization ? A specialized OTC derivatives product § § Securitization is a technique to standardize financial instruments for risk transfer from underlying assets; it is OTC derivative product structure through SPV Derivative is a simple financial instrument for risk transfer from a single underlying asset (OTC/ETD) MBS = package of assets linked to mortgages B A D C Banking Governmen Derivatives Legal & CLO = collateralized package of loan obligations t Benchmark Bonds Intermediate Products Deposit → Loan Collateral Framewor k Interest Rate OTC → Mortgage → MBS Page 3

Two perspectives " Although the benefits and costs of derivatives remain the subject of

Two perspectives " Although the benefits and costs of derivatives remain the subject of spirited debate, the performance of the economy and the financial system in recent years suggests that those benefits have materially exceeded the costs. " Alan Greenspan “We view them as time bombs both for the parties that deal in them and the economic system. In our view derivatives are financial weapons of mass destruction (WMD), carrying dangers that, while now latent, are potentially lethal. ” Warren Buffet Page 4

2. Global derivative markets rapid OTC growth and increasing ETD products OTC Derivative Markets

2. Global derivative markets rapid OTC growth and increasing ETD products OTC Derivative Markets 2004 Exchange-Traded Derivatives FX 12% 75% US: 40% Interest EU: 40% Gov-Debt Asia: 20% ABS+MBS: 4% $248 trn notional $9 trn mkt value 65% Equ-Index Stocks 26% $53 trn notional $10 trn mkt value Comm Credit OTC (bar) and Exchange-Traded (line) Derivatives (notional outstanding, in billions US$) Annual growth rates exceed 30% Sources: BIS (Dec 2004) ; FIBV (Jan 2005) Page 5

Asian derivative markets banks in OTC FX and security firms in equity ETD Sources:

Asian derivative markets banks in OTC FX and security firms in equity ETD Sources: Triennial Central Bank Survey (BIS, 2005) and World Federation of Exchanges (2005) Page 6

3. Building blocks for Derivatives MBS requires similar components as derivatives Necessary components for

3. Building blocks for Derivatives MBS requires similar components as derivatives Necessary components for MBS Product Design Regulation Infrastructure v Push by originator for risk transfer tools v Regulatory approval, product understanding v Industry guide on standardized products v Pull by investors for yield and duration v Legal clarity: default, repossession, enforcement v Credit ratings industry and standards v Risk-based pricing, benchmark, corp bonds v System-wide stability without moral hazard v Accounting rules, transparency, disclosure v Clear tax treatment, level playing field v Best practice risk management v Suitability criteria for investors, SRO Page 7

Building blocks for derivative markets Product Design v Economic rationale for hedging needs v

Building blocks for derivative markets Product Design v Economic rationale for hedging needs v Liquid cash market, long and short positions v Market determined prices, interest/FX rates v System stability, no moral hazard risks Regulation Infrastructure v Lead regulator, capital rules, reporting standards v CCP, ISDA master, close-out netting v Legal clarity: ISDA standards, enforceability v Demut. exchanges, strong capital, margins v Accounting rules, transparency, disclosure v SRO rules enforced with limits, monitoring v Level playing field, tax harmonized, integration v Certified investors, code of conduct Page 8

Derivatives enhance financial development win-win instruments for banks, corporations, investors § … beyond rice

Derivatives enhance financial development win-win instruments for banks, corporations, investors § … beyond rice trading in Tokyo and tulip trading in Amsterdam § Commodity producers lock in future prices and reduce uncertainty § Corporations can close mismatch between assets and liabilities § Firms can hedge export receipts and seek cheapest funding abroad § Banks can share excessive or lumpy risks in capital markets § Investors gain access to new markets and broader asset classes § Pension funds can diversify exposure and enhance risk management § Retail receives better pricing for mortgages and securitized products § Foreign investment is facilitated by higher liquidity and hedging tools § Financial system enhances stability through new “spare tire” Page 9

Rewards and risks of derivatives market development combined with prudential issues a Market efficiency

Rewards and risks of derivatives market development combined with prudential issues a Market efficiency r More leverage a Risk sharing and transfer r Less transparency a Low transaction costs r Dubious accounting a Capital intermediation r Regulatory arbitrage a Liquidity enhancement r Hidden systemic risk a Price discovery r Counter-party risk a Cash market development r Tail-risk future exposure a Hedging tools r Weak capital a Regulatory savings requirements r Zero-sum transfer tools Page 10

4. Schematic development of D markets cash liquidity + sound regulation + solid CCP

4. Schematic development of D markets cash liquidity + sound regulation + solid CCP infrastructure Cash Markets liquid, efficient, integrated; benchmarks Investor Base hedging needs, products, IT, lower costs Accounting adopt IFRS, MTM, IAS 39, full disclosure Design CCP close-out net, ISDA master, enforcement Derivative Market Building Blocks ETD Exchange platform, links, capital, margins, first futures Repo OTC License reg approval, CP credit risk, swaps IR & FX Cash Regul & Legal Framework derivatives law, SRO function Repo Markets effective short, margin trading; secur. lending Intermediary Licensing qual. investors, training Taxes level playing field cash=repo=D, avoid trans tax Page 11

Link between cash and D turnover liquidity corridor for emerging and developed markets Derivatives

Link between cash and D turnover liquidity corridor for emerging and developed markets Derivatives Turnover 100, 000 5: 1 USA GER 10, 000 KOR 1, 000 SIN 1: 1 JAP UK HKG AUS ESP IND 100 1, 000 100, 000 Cash Turnover Source: World Federation of Exchanges (Dec 2004) Page 12

Derivative products in Asia three tiers of exchanges offer six product categories Australia Index

Derivative products in Asia three tiers of exchanges offer six product categories Australia Index Futures Options on futures Stock Futures Options Currency Futures Options Interest rate Futures Options on futures Bonds Futures Options on futures Commodities Futures Options on futures # of products traded China Hong Kong India Indonesia Japan Korea Malaysia. Philippines. Singapore Thailand a a a r r r a a r a r r a a a r r a a a r r r a r r a r r r r r a r a a r r r r a a r r a r r r a a a r r r a a a r r r a r r r 12 1 6 5 3 10 9 5 0 9 0 Notes: Australian Stock Exchange (ASX) and Sydney Futures Exchange (SFE) China: Zhengzhou & Dalian Commodity Exchange, Shanghai Futures Exchange Hong Kong: HKEx India: National Stock Exchange of India (NSE) and Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) Indonesia: Jakarta Futures Exchange (JFX), and Surabaya Stock Exchange Japan: TIFFE, Tokyo Stock Exchange (TSE), Osaka Securities Exchange, Tokyo Commodity Exchange Korea: Korea Stock Exchange (KSE) and Korea Futures Exchange (KOFEX) Malaysia: Malaysia Derivatives Exchange Philippines: Manila International Futures Exchange was closed Singapore: SGX-DT Thailand: Thailand Futures Exchange plans to open in 2006 Sources: Websites of regional exchanges, WFE, Futures Industry Association, and HK-SFC (2004). Page 13

Derivatives infrastructure in Asia liquidity indicators improve but regulation still evolving Notes: a denotes

Derivatives infrastructure in Asia liquidity indicators improve but regulation still evolving Notes: a denotes best practice ; q denotes progress on existing deficiencies ; and r denotes major problems. 1. / Fixed income liquidity indicators and benchmarks are obtained from asianbondsonline. adb. org, which shows weaknesses in China (segmented markets), Hong Kong (small local currency issuance), Indonesia, Philippines, and Thailand (limited medium to long-term benchmark issues). 2. / Turnover ratios for fixed income instruments have also been obtained from HSBC (2004). 3. / Equity market liquidity indicators have been obtained from World Federation of Exchanges (2004), which revealed thin markets in Philippines, Indonesia, and Thailand. 4. / Information about laws on derivatives was obtained from individual country, with only Australia, Hong Kong, and India currently having distinct laws on derivatives. 5. / Securities lending data were obtained from Endo and Rhee (2005), showing restrictions in Malaysia and Philippines on short selling, with very little activity in Indonesia and Thailand. 6. / World Bank public documents on accounting standards (ROSC) and professional publications reveal adequate accounting standards aligned to IFRS standards only in Australia, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore, but major gaps exist in the Philippines. 7. / CCP information was obtained from industry sources and ADB, showing adequate functioning only in Hong Kong, Korea, and Singapore. 8. / ISDA netting opinions have been issued for all countries mentioned with the exception of China, but many countries have issues to resolve. 9. / Data from individual exchanges show their progress towards demutualization (2004). 10. / Data on taxation were obtained from PWC "Taxation on financial derivatives in Asia" (2003), which showed small stamp duties in effect in Hong Kong and Malaysia, and VAT being applied in China, Philippines and Thailand. 11. / Transaction costs for bond markets were obtained from ADB (2004) and additional market information on taxation. 12. / Institutional investor base and NBFI indicators are obtained from ADB, which shows weaknesses especially in Indonesia and Philippines. Page 14

5. Technical issues critical tools to increase netting and enhance cushions § § §

5. Technical issues critical tools to increase netting and enhance cushions § § § § § Basics first: liquid and efficient cash markets allowing short positions Legal framework: D law, SRO rules, licensing, ISDA documentation Equal taxation: D may enhance volatility and substitute cash markets Governance issues: accounting standards (IAS 39), disclosure rules Netting is critical: 85% risk reduction through close-out netting Manage CP risk: Central clearing counterparty (CCP) is best practice Modern exchange: demutualized, effective margins, strong buffers Risk tools: dynamic margins, pos limits, reserves, capital, insurance Product sequence: corporate hedging (interest rate futures) are more important than retail speculation (equity options) Page 15

Policy issues transparency + monitoring + oversight enhance stability § ETD vs OTC: Investors

Policy issues transparency + monitoring + oversight enhance stability § ETD vs OTC: Investors prefer Exchanges – Banks prefer OTC Markets shifting OTC products (interest futures) onto exchange enhances stability § Regulation: level playing field for ETD and OTC markets plus disclosure § Caution: D can undermine fixed prices, pegged FX regimes, credit policies § Monitoring: highly leveraged institutions, cross-border, FX and credit D § Capital: D require risk-based capital plus add-on cushions, beyond Basel-I § Public banks: bridge market failures but subsidies can create warehouses § Oversight: exchanges, SROs, rating agencies provide critical infrastructure § Enforcement: market surveillance, transparency, legal clarity, ISDA standards § Investor protection: rationale for new D products, standards for suitability Page 16

6. Conclusion – main messages 1. Derivatives can enhance financial intermediation and economic growth

6. Conclusion – main messages 1. Derivatives can enhance financial intermediation and economic growth but require efficient underlying cash markets and sound infrastructure 2. Modern exchanges with leading risk systems (CCP, dynamic margins, buffer) can enhance transparency, safety, and competitiveness of a financial system 3. Prudential supervision is critical for FX and credit derivatives which could undermine fixed prices, pegged FX regimes, and credit policies 4. Securitization products should be grounded on Page 17

Discussion 谢 谢 Thank You www. worldbank. org/boards www. worldbank. org/finance www. financelearning. org

Discussion 谢 谢 Thank You www. worldbank. org/boards www. worldbank. org/finance www. financelearning. org “An invasion of armies can be resisted, but not an idea whose time has come” Victor Hugo Page 18