- Slides: 12
Derivational Affixation nation inter nation al al ize iz ation N ADJ V N N
Hierarchical Structure of Derivation Adjective un Adjective Noun atic system Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams. 2011. An Introduction to Language, 9 th edition. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, p. 53.
What do Derivational Morphemes give us? NEW words / different words RELATED Meaning, BUT NOT THE SAME (happy vs. unhappy) Maybe different grammatical category —maybe not
What do Inflectional Morphemes give us? Same word (different tense, number, person/agreement, case) [ usually used in the syntax of the language] Same basic meaning No change in grammatical category
How can knowing about morphology help you? To COMPREHEND unknown words when you encounter them For GUESSING unknown words To LEARN unknown / new words To MEMORIZE OR REMEMBER them
Productive Affixes -able -ness -er un-ity -th -en V+able ADJ+ness V+er un+ADJ ADJ+ity ADJ+th ADJ+en V ADJ N V N ADJ ADJ N ADJ V Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams. 2011. An Introduction to Language, 9 th edition. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
Types of Accidental Gaps 1. Some sound sequences OK, but not used in English (e. g. , blick, slarm, krobe) 2. Some derived forms do not exist no unpossible (only impossible) 3. Some gaps / missing word in English lexicon no generic common word for BOVINE (only COW and BULL)
Accidental Derivational Gaps -sion -ive -ible in-al -er permit commit transmit permission permissive permissible impermissible (permittal) (permissioner) permitter commission commissive commissible (incommissible) committal commissioner committor transmission transmissive transmissible intransmissible transmittal (transmissioner) transmitter Miller, George A. 1996. The Science of Words. New York: Scientific American Library, p. 109.
Morphological Analysis Adjective Meaning ugly uglier ugliest very unattractive more ugly most ugly prettier prettiest nice looking more nice looking most nice looking taller tallest large in height more tall most tall Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams. 2011. An Introduction to Language, 9 th edition. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, p. 65.
Zulu (Morphology: Exercise 5) PREFIX NUMBER um. SINGULAR aba. PLURAL ROOT GLOSS faz fan zal fundis baz lim dlal fund married woman boy parent teacher / teach carver / carve farmer / farm player / play reader / read SUFFIX CLASS -i -a -i -i / a -i / a NOUN VERB
Chickasaw (Morphology Ex 17 or 18) a. Root morphemes 1. chaaha 2. hopoba to be tall to be hungry b. Morphemes 1. -tok 2. sa 3. chi 4. — past tense I you he/she c. ispokni “to be old 1. chisipokni 2. sipoknitok 3. hoosipokni you are old he was old they are old
Samoan (Morphology: Exercise 9 or 10) a. b. (1) they weave (2) they travel (3) he sings lalaga savavali pese Morphological rule for making third person plural from third person singular verb forms in Samoan: Reduplicate the second syllable from the end.