Department of Education PROTEACH Project Erasmus Program Va

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Department of Education PROTEACH Project / Erasmus+ Program Va. KE – Prototypical Approach and

Department of Education PROTEACH Project / Erasmus+ Program Va. KE – Prototypical Approach and Theoretical Background University of Salzburg, Austria February 2019 Jean Luc Patry, Lydia Linortner & Sieglinde Weyringer Department of Education of the University of Salzburg Erzabt Klotz Straße 1, 5020 Salzburg jean luc. [email protected] ac. at; sieglinde. [email protected] ac. at Va. KE. eu The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“ is supported by TRP 56 G 17

Department of Education Values without knowledge is blind; knowledge without values is irresponsible. •

Department of Education Values without knowledge is blind; knowledge without values is irresponsible. • Values on their own are blind because an individual may have the best of intentions but will fail because of insufficient knowledge about the how to translate it into action and about the context, conditions, and opportunities to put them into effect, and how to deal with contradicting values related with different action options. • Knowledge by itself is irresponsible because it can be used for good or bad purposes; the latter can only be avoided if individuals relate their knowledge with values. Values and knowledge must be related with each other. Va. KE. eu The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“ is supported by TRP 56 G 17

Department of Education Values Education Knowledge Education Va. KE. eu OUGHT IS The project

Department of Education Values Education Knowledge Education Va. KE. eu OUGHT IS The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“ is supported by TRP 56 G 17

Department of Education Ad Va. KE Gruber (2009, 2010): Teachers want to do values

Department of Education Ad Va. KE Gruber (2009, 2010): Teachers want to do values education, but they avoid it because 1. Curricular pressure, lack of time, school structure etc. 2. „I don‘t know how to do it. “ 3. „I don‘t want to interfere with parents and administration. “ Va. KE. eu The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“ is supported by TRP 56 G 17

Department of Education Values and Education Knowledge Education Va. KE. eu OUGHT IS The

Department of Education Values and Education Knowledge Education Va. KE. eu OUGHT IS The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“ is supported by TRP 56 G 17

Department of Education https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=bwc 7 n_e. CPu 0 Va. KE.

Department of Education https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=bwc 7 n_e. CPu 0 Va. KE. eu The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“ is supported by TRP 56 G 17

Department of Education 1. Theoretical base Va. KE. eu The project „Va. KE –

Department of Education 1. Theoretical base Va. KE. eu The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“ is supported by TRP 56 G 17

Department of Education Theoretical base Constructivism Assimilation, Accommodation (Piaget) Viability Check Moral Development (Kohlberg)

Department of Education Theoretical base Constructivism Assimilation, Accommodation (Piaget) Viability Check Moral Development (Kohlberg) Conceptual Change (Vosniadou) Social Viability Check Moral Education (Blatt & Kohlberg) Inquiry Based Learning (Reitinger) Va. KE Additional Theories Va. KE. eu The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“ is supported by TRP 56 G 17

Department of Education The theories in a nutshell The base is a combination of

Department of Education The theories in a nutshell The base is a combination of several theories, some of which might look contradictory! Va. KE. eu The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“ is supported by TRP 56 G 17

Department of Education Principles of constructivism 1. Concepts (of any kind) are constructed actively

Department of Education Principles of constructivism 1. Concepts (of any kind) are constructed actively by the learner, not conveyed. 2. Concepts are not true or wrong, but viable or not viable. A concept is viable if it satisfies the needs of the user, if it helps him or her to reach his or her goal(s). 3. Hence a concept can be viable in some situations and/or for some users, not in or for others. 4. Viability is tested based on viability criteria (viability check). Va. KE. eu The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“ is supported by TRP 56 G 17

Department of Education Competence construction means (a) integration of concepts into the learner‘s system

Department of Education Competence construction means (a) integration of concepts into the learner‘s system of subjective theories (assimilation) or b) changing the subjective theories to fit the information (accommodation). 1. Assimilation occurs if the new concept is compatible with the subjective theories (taking into account the viability criteria). 2. If the new concept is accepted as viable, but doesn’t comply with the subjective theories, a disequilibrium is created that the learner aims at compensating. 3. The learner changes his or her subjective theories to eliminate the disequilibrium through (systematic) trial and error: accommodation. Va. KE. eu The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“ is supported by TRP 56 G 17

Department of Education Constructivism Assimilation, Accommodation (Piaget) Moral Development (Kohlberg) Va. KE. eu The

Department of Education Constructivism Assimilation, Accommodation (Piaget) Moral Development (Kohlberg) Va. KE. eu The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“ is supported by TRP 56 G 17

Department of Education Moral development 1. Moral orientations: a) Justice: Treating people equally or

Department of Education Moral development 1. Moral orientations: a) Justice: Treating people equally or according to their needs (several people) (Kohlberg and followers) b) Care: A single person should get the best possible treatment (one single person) (Gilligan and followers) c) Truthfulness: Act in accordance with your belief system, feelings, etc. (Habermas and followers) Possibility of antinomies! Dilemmas ( Va. KE!) Need to combine orientations (ethos) Va. KE. eu The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“ is supported by TRP 56 G 17

Department of Education 2. Structural genetic approach: Focus is not on the values themselves,

Department of Education 2. Structural genetic approach: Focus is not on the values themselves, but on the justification of the values (moral judgment) 3. Stages of moral development (Justice; Kohlberg): Va. KE. eu The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“ is supported by TRP 56 G 17

Department of Education Stage 1 (full heteronomy: Obedience and punishment): The child adapts his

Department of Education Stage 1 (full heteronomy: Obedience and punishment): The child adapts his or her behavior to avoid punishment; the moral norms are not integrated. Va. KE. eu The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“ is supported by TRP 56 G 17

Department of Education Stage 2 (Personel interest): mutual support Va. KE. eu The project

Department of Education Stage 2 (Personel interest): mutual support Va. KE. eu The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“ is supported by TRP 56 G 17

Department of Education Stage 3 (Conformity and Interpersonal accord): The young integrates the rules

Department of Education Stage 3 (Conformity and Interpersonal accord): The young integrates the rules of the group, restricted to those who belong to the group. The main concern is: What will they think of me? Va. KE. eu The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“ is supported by TRP 56 G 17

Department of Education Stage 4 (Maintaining social order): The young integrates the social norms

Department of Education Stage 4 (Maintaining social order): The young integrates the social norms because they serve to maintain the society. Va. KE. eu The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“ is supported by TRP 56 G 17

Department of Education Stages 5/6 (Universal ethical principles): The moral judgment is based on

Department of Education Stages 5/6 (Universal ethical principles): The moral judgment is based on moral values of universal validity and is adapted by the person based on an ethical reflexion. Va. KE. eu Principles The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“ is supported by TRP 56 G 17

Department of Education Moral development is sequentiel: It developes by phases that follow each

Department of Education Moral development is sequentiel: It developes by phases that follow each other; none can be left out. Dis equ Stage Dis ilib equ rium ilib rium equ ilib rium Time Va. KE. eu The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“ is supported by TRP 56 G 17

Department of Education Moral development is irreversible: Once a stage has been acquired, a

Department of Education Moral development is irreversible: Once a stage has been acquired, a person cannot go back to a former stage. Exception: the case of degeneration such as Alzheimer. Stage Va. KE. eu Time The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“ is supported by TRP 56 G 17

Department of Education Moral development is integrative: A person having acquired a higher stage

Department of Education Moral development is integrative: A person having acquired a higher stage is able to understand the arguments of people on a lower stage. 4 5/6 3 1 2 Va. KE. eu Principles The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“ is supported by TRP 56 G 17

Department of Education • Moral development is transcultural, i. e. , in all cultures

Department of Education • Moral development is transcultural, i. e. , in all cultures the development follows the same stages. • Not always to the highest stage is reached: Some people stagnate at a lower level. • Accommodations depends on environment (viability criterion varies). Example: women lower than stage 4. Va. KE. eu The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“ is supported by TRP 56 G 17

Department of Education 3. Stages of moral development (Care; Gilligan): Pre Conventional • Persons

Department of Education 3. Stages of moral development (Care; Gilligan): Pre Conventional • Persons only care for themselves in order to ensure survival. Conventional • Responsibility: More care shown for other people. Gilligan says this is shown in the role of Mother & Wife. The situation sometimes carries on to ignoring needs of self. Post Conventional • Acceptance of the principle of care for self and others is shown. • Don’t hurt others! Some people never reach this level. Va. KE. eu The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“ is supported by TRP 56 G 17

Department of Education Va. KE: • Both justice and care addressed (contrast to traditional

Department of Education Va. KE: • Both justice and care addressed (contrast to traditional values education in the tradition of Kohlberg which focuses only on justice). • Sex played no role (males and females have the same distribution of justice and care). • Concern or involvement is decisive: • High concern/involvement: Care is more important. • Low concern/involvement: Justice is more important. Patry, J. L. , & Schaber, K. (2010, Januar). Fürsorge versus Gerechtigkeit: Argumen tieren Frauen anders als Männer? Eine Untersuchung zur Geschlechtsspezifität in moralischen Ent scheidungssituationen. Vortrag, gehalten an der Tagung „Moral und Beruf 2010“ in Basel. Va. KE. eu The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“ is supported by TRP 56 G 17

Department of Education Constructivism Assimilation, Accommodation (Piaget) Moral Development (Kohlberg) Va. KE. eu Conceptual

Department of Education Constructivism Assimilation, Accommodation (Piaget) Moral Development (Kohlberg) Va. KE. eu Conceptual Change (Vosniadou) The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“ is supported by TRP 56 G 17

Department of Education • Students fail to understand many concepts in science and mathematics

Department of Education • Students fail to understand many concepts in science and mathematics because they are incompatible with their prior knowledge (counter intuitive). • Therefore, synthetic models can be created since students try to incorporate the scientific information to their prior knowledge, forming misconceptions. • In order to achieve full conceptual change considerable changes are required in individuals’ naïve theories such as ontological recategorizations, representational changes and epistemological sophistication (Vosniadou, 2013). Va. KE. eu The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“ is supported by TRP 56 G 17

Department of Education Constructivism Assimilation, Accommodation (Piaget) Viability Check Va. KE. eu Moral Development

Department of Education Constructivism Assimilation, Accommodation (Piaget) Viability Check Va. KE. eu Moral Development (Kohlberg) Conceptual Change (Vosniadou) The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“ is supported by TRP 56 G 17

Department of Education Viability check: Constructivist learning is not only constructing concepts, but also

Department of Education Viability check: Constructivist learning is not only constructing concepts, but also checking whether the concept is viable – equilibration (Piaget) is not automatic, but requires a test whether the viability criterion is met. Types of VC in school: • Experience (e. g. : Bike riding) • Argumentative VC (e. g. : Moral judgment) • Social VC (e. g. : Feedback by peers) • Simulation (e. g. : Anticipation of the outcomes of one’s action) • Substitute VC (e. g. : Model learning) • Communicated VC (e. g. : Reports on VCs) • Post hoc: Reflexion (e. g. : Looking for other solutions in math) • Post hoc: Feedback (e. g. : Praise) Va. KE. eu The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“ is supported by TRP 56 G 17

Department of Education Constructivism Assimilation, Accommodation (Piaget) Viability Check Moral Development (Kohlberg) Conceptual Change

Department of Education Constructivism Assimilation, Accommodation (Piaget) Viability Check Moral Development (Kohlberg) Conceptual Change (Vosniadou) Moral Education (Blatt & Kohlberg) Va. KE. eu The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“ is supported by TRP 56 G 17

Department of Education Moral education according to Blatt & Kohlberg: Dilemma discussion Dilemma: Situation

Department of Education Moral education according to Blatt & Kohlberg: Dilemma discussion Dilemma: Situation in which a protagonist must take a decision; whatever decision is taken, some values are broken. Discussing a dilemma in groups: • Arguments of different stages of moral judgment are exchanged and checked for viability; • Failed viability checks lead to disequilibrium; • After discussions, equilibration occurs, and accommodation. Research has shown that such dilemma discussions lead to higher stages – but it takes time. Va. KE. eu The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“ is supported by TRP 56 G 17

Department of Education Constructivism Assimilation, Accommodation (Piaget) Viability Check Va. KE. eu Moral Development

Department of Education Constructivism Assimilation, Accommodation (Piaget) Viability Check Va. KE. eu Moral Development (Kohlberg) Conceptual Change (Vosniadou) Moral Education (Blatt & Kohlberg) Inquiry Based Learning (Reitinger) The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“ is supported by TRP 56 G 17

Department of Education Inquiry-based teaching/learning Constructivist knowledge acquisition is based on asking questions (

Department of Education Inquiry-based teaching/learning Constructivist knowledge acquisition is based on asking questions ( viability criterion), trying to answer them and checking whether the answer is viable (viability check). Reitinger: Criteria: • General discovery interest: Curiosity • Method affirmation: Authenticity of autonomous learning process • Experience based hypothesizing: Assumptions • Authentic exploration: Self determined inquiry (Decy & Ryan) • Critical discourse: VC • Conclusion based transfer: Applying to other fields. Va. KE. eu The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“ is supported by TRP 56 G 17

Department of Education Reitinger: Conditions: • Trust: Truthfulness, “ideal communication situation” (Habermas) • Self

Department of Education Reitinger: Conditions: • Trust: Truthfulness, “ideal communication situation” (Habermas) • Self determination: Autonomy; responsibility for one’s own learning; open setting • Safety: Errors are a learning opportunity (provided VC), not a failure • Clearness: Minimizing ambivalence and misunderstandings • Structuring: Clear frameworks without losing autonomy • Personalizing: Learner’s individual perception in the focus Va. KE. eu The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“ is supported by TRP 56 G 17

Department of Education Constructivism Assimilation, Accommodation (Piaget) Viability Check Moral Development (Kohlberg) Conceptual Change

Department of Education Constructivism Assimilation, Accommodation (Piaget) Viability Check Moral Development (Kohlberg) Conceptual Change (Vosniadou) Social Viability Check Moral Education (Blatt & Kohlberg) Inquiry Based Learning (Reitinger) Va. KE. eu The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“ is supported by TRP 56 G 17

Department of Education Social VC: In the tradition of Vygotsky (social constructivism) : •

Department of Education Social VC: In the tradition of Vygotsky (social constructivism) : • Knowledge is socially and culturally constructed that is influenced by the group and it’s environment. Learning is a social activity. • Learning is promoted through collaboration among students, and between students and teacher. • As students share background knowledge and participate in the give and take of collaborative and cooperative activities they are actually negotiating meaning this is replaced by the VC! • They are building knowledge, not as individuals, but as a group. Rather (in contrast to Vygotsky) each learner acquires an individual concept. External theories are not taken uncritically for the Va. KE theory Va. KE. eu The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“ is supported by TRP 56 G 17

Department of Education Constructivism Assimilation, Accommodation (Piaget) Viability Check Moral Development (Kohlberg) Conceptual Change

Department of Education Constructivism Assimilation, Accommodation (Piaget) Viability Check Moral Development (Kohlberg) Conceptual Change (Vosniadou) Social Viability Check Moral Education (Blatt & Kohlberg) Inquiry Based Learning (Reitinger) Va. KE. eu The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“ is supported by TRP 56 G 17

Department of Education Constructivism Assimilation, Accommodation (Piaget) Viability Check Moral Development (Kohlberg) Conceptual Change

Department of Education Constructivism Assimilation, Accommodation (Piaget) Viability Check Moral Development (Kohlberg) Conceptual Change (Vosniadou) Social Viability Check Moral Education (Blatt & Kohlberg) Inquiry Based Learning (Reitinger) Va. KE Additional Theories Va. KE. eu The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“ is supported by TRP 56 G 17

Department of Education Whenever presenting Va. KE, social scientists say that one could also

Department of Education Whenever presenting Va. KE, social scientists say that one could also use other theories. There are many such theories. Again: Va. KE permits to integrate many different theories, even ones that seem contradictory! Questioning Kuhn’s paradigm theory! Va. KE. eu The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“ is supported by TRP 56 G 17

Department of Education 2. Va. KE. eu The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“

Department of Education 2. Va. KE. eu The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“ is supported by TRP 56 G 17

Department of Education Dilemmas in Va. KE • Values dilemma in the sense of

Department of Education Dilemmas in Va. KE • Values dilemma in the sense of Blatt & Kohlberg • Knowledge that students may use is addressed. Va. KE. eu The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“ is supported by TRP 56 G 17

Department of Education Steps in a prototypical Va. KE unit # Step 1 Introduce

Department of Education Steps in a prototypical Va. KE unit # Step 1 Introduce dilemma 2 First decision 3 1 st dilemma discussion 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Action r illiam W s a nd? W a l g n Who is in favor, who against? class E e d nva i o t d e l t i t en ero u q n Understand dilemma and tvalues class o C e h Moral viability check groups f o y t l i u kg c e z y o W Missing information What Is d? do I need to know to continue? class n e i r f l r i g f his o r e d r u Looking for evidence Getting Should informationa specific sexualgroups m Exchange information Inform peers; content check class offender beviability castrated? Should the pipeline 2 nd dilemma discussion Moral viability check groups Nabucco be built? Synthesis of results Present conclusions class il h d c l il n a h it w r Repeat 4 through 8 if needed orke w d e y lo p m e n er w o an u p r ld a u le o c h u S n g aprocess General synthesis Capitalizing on whole class in d il u b t s in a g a strate n o m e d b? a jofields Generalization Application todother variable in f ld u o c e h e r plant whe Va. KE. eu The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“ is supported by TRP 56 G 17

Department of Education Dilemma for NOVICE TEACHER EDUCATION Mr. Robertson is a novice teacher

Department of Education Dilemma for NOVICE TEACHER EDUCATION Mr. Robertson is a novice teacher in higher education. He enjoys a lot teaching Spanish in the last degree for the first time. His eight students were taught before by Mrs. Redington who is now his mentor teacher. Peter is a very extroverted student and always has an answer when Mr. Robertson asks questions during Spanish lessons. Peters answers are not always 100% right as he is not a very conscientious person but his oral cooperation is very well. As they have the second exam of the year Peter fails, like in the first exam. This second time it´s caused by only three points missing which were due to Peter’s speed errors. Mr. Robertson decides to let Peter pass because his personal performance increased tremendously. He started the year very unmotivated and became better and even showed intrinsic motivation, for the language, by translating his favourite songs. Mr. Robertson is very proud of that development, as he sees the change also as his personal achievement by the aim to motivate also laziest students. Mrs. Redington was often against Mr. Robertson´s new approaches and teaching technics which consist in giving more self-determination and autonomy to the students in how to gain new knowledge. Those technics are also focused on cooperation between students in the class, as well as to the teacher. He had the Self-determination Theory of Deci and Ryan in mind for his own teaching as well as for his students learning goals. Va. KE. eu The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“ is supported by TRP 56 G 17

Department of Education Mrs. Redington always taught based on the Protection Motivation Theory by

Department of Education Mrs. Redington always taught based on the Protection Motivation Theory by R. W. Rogers which means that students learn to avoid threats in the sense of failing the subject. As this is creating lots of pressure to the students and is an external motivation which works and gives good short term results she is convinced about the appropriateness of her method. As Mrs. Redington is mentoring Mr. Robertson she is checking the second exams of the students the evaluation. She thinks that Peter should fail and not be able to participate at the final exam of his secondary school certification. So he would have to repeat the whole year again. Mr. Robertson is pretty sure that if Peter would now get a fail his motivation and effort would be washed away. Mr. Robertson tries to convince Mrs. Redington that Peter deserves a chance to participate at the final exam because of Peter´s motivation flow, of the shown improvement and fabulous cooperation. Mr. Robertson is sure that Peter can easily pass and get his final grade. Mrs. Redington is against it and says she will go to the authority if Mr. Robertson let Peter pass. What should Mr. Robertson do? Should he let Peter fail because of the points or should he let Mrs. Redington go to the authority? Va. KE. eu The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“ is supported by TRP 56 G 17

Department of Education Steps in a prototypical Va. KE unit # Step 1 Introduce

Department of Education Steps in a prototypical Va. KE unit # Step 1 Introduce dilemma 2 First decision 3 1 st dilemma discussion r illiam W s a nd? W a l g n Who is in favor, who against? class E e d nva i o t d e l t i t en Synthesis of results Present conclusions class 4 5 6 7 8 9 Action ero u q n Understand dilemma and tvalues class o C e h Moral viability check groups f o y t l i u kg c e z y o W Missing information What Is d? do I need to know to continue? class n e i r f l r i g f his o r e d r u Looking for evidence Getting Should informationa specific sexualgroups m Exchange information Inform peers; content check class offender beviability castrated? Should the pipeline 2 nd dilemma discussion Moral viability check groups Nabucco be built? Repeat 4 through 8 if needed 10 General synthesis Capitalizing on whole process class 11 Generalization Application to other fields variable Va. KE. eu The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“ is supported by TRP 56 G 17

Department of Education First Decision Mrs. Redington is against it and says she will

Department of Education First Decision Mrs. Redington is against it and says she will go to the authority if Mr. Robertson let Peter pass. What should Mr. Robertson do? Should he let Peter fail because of the points or should he let Mrs. Redington go to the authority? Be aware that… makes 70% for one or the other side • It´s important to stay fair, other students learned all the years to pass – true! • It´s most important the students stay motivated – true! Va. KE. eu The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“ is supported by TRP 56 G 17

Department of Education First Discussion • Be prepared with arguments will be at stake

Department of Education First Discussion • Be prepared with arguments will be at stake but/and step back as a teacher • Be prepared which knoweledge questions can/will arise, not to answer but…. …eventually to trigger which mostly is not necesary!!! Va. KE. eu The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“ is supported by TRP 56 G 17

Department of Education To solve this Dilemma (Missing information) : Novice teacher would gain

Department of Education To solve this Dilemma (Missing information) : Novice teacher would gain knowledge/ content: learning about SDT, autonomy, competence, and relatedness; PMT Coping appraisal involves the assessment of response efficacy, self-efficacy, and response cost Intrinsic/extrinsic Motivation, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation as dichotomous External regulation external entity or external means or introjected regulation, Integrated regulation, Identified regulation, learning about teaching methods like Va. KE. eu The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“ is supported by TRP 56 G 17

Department of Education To solve this Dilemma Social/structural/legislation knowledge and skills : About the

Department of Education To solve this Dilemma Social/structural/legislation knowledge and skills : About the rights and obligations of a novice teacher about do´s and don’ts School structure about collegiality Va. KE. eu The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“ is supported by TRP 56 G 17

Department of Education Looking for Evidence and Excange information • Let students use all

Department of Education Looking for Evidence and Excange information • Let students use all kind of information reasearch you can think of; ask experts, internet, books, …most important is to discuss the quality of information and ressource • The presentation is ment to be in an appropriate way, there are no rules or regulations Va. KE. eu The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“ is supported by TRP 56 G 17

Department of Education Second discussion • • New discussion on higher level Ask about

Department of Education Second discussion • • New discussion on higher level Ask about the moral viability check Solutions appropriate? Knowledge appropriate? • Everybody is free to change sides by telling a resonable argument!!! Va. KE. eu The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“ is supported by TRP 56 G 17

Department of Education Synthesis of results /Repeat • Knowledge and arguments information synthesis •

Department of Education Synthesis of results /Repeat • Knowledge and arguments information synthesis • Does another research make sense to get new findings? Va. KE. eu The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“ is supported by TRP 56 G 17

Department of Education Generalization and Transfer • Do together a reflection about the process,

Department of Education Generalization and Transfer • Do together a reflection about the process, what happend, what arguments were at stake, what info was new? • What other fields, other situations, other circumstances can lead or would need same information, moral attitude, or similar or even the opposit point of view? Va. KE. eu The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“ is supported by TRP 56 G 17

Department of Education Variations • Va. KE dis with a focus on individual reflections

Department of Education Variations • Va. KE dis with a focus on individual reflections • Va. KE+ with a focus on viability checks • Va. KE special with a focus on special knowledge (e. g. , research methodology on University level) • Va. KE online: Online platform Va. KE. salzburgresearch. at • Adaptations for kindergarten and primary school (in progress) Va. KE. eu The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“ is supported by TRP 56 G 17

Department of Education Thank you for your attention! Va. KE. eu The project „Va.

Department of Education Thank you for your attention! Va. KE. eu The project „Va. KE – Applied Theories“ is supported by TRP 56 G 17