- Slides: 30
Dental products: Why dental products? - to maintain dental hygiene - to prevent decay of teeth Clean teeth keeps good health. *** inorganic chemicals and their preparation used in practice of dental and oral disorder.
Dental products include: 1 - Anticaries 2 - Cleaning agent 3 - Polishing agent
. Anticaries agent: Dental caries or tooth decay is due to acids produced by the action of microorganism on carbohydrate. (results in acidic levels in the mouth affect tooth's special mineral content causes it to be sensitive to low p. H) * the disease is characterized by decalcification of tooth accounted by foul mouth odor. * exact cause and mechanism of disease is not known.
* Dental caries first of all starts on the surface of teeth by the bacterial acids. * to prevent dental caries and to maintain clean and healthy teeth anticaries and dentifrices are used.
Role of fluoride: - to prevent dental caries - obtained from food and water. ** fluoridation : addition of fluoride to the water. High fluoride cause: 1 - mottling of teeth 2 - increased density of bone 3 - gastric disturbance 4 - muscular weakness 5 - convulsion and heart failure
Role of fluoride: - when salt or solution of fluoride is taken internally , it is absorbed , transported and deposited in the bone or developing teeth and reminder gets excreted. -the deposited fluoride on the surface of teeth does not allow the action of acids or enzymes. - less amount of fluoride ( 1 ppm) is required. Rout of administration: 1 - orally and 2 -topically
Rout of administration: -drinking water [0. 5 to 1 ppm] - fruit juice [ 1 ppm] -Na. F tablets or solution 2. 2 mg. -Topical application =2% solution. Role of phosphate: -phosphate ion are needed for stronger bones and healthy teeth. - they are used in deficiency - used as cleaning agent.
Anticaries agent: -Na. F Sodium monoflurophosphate -Stannus fluoride Sn. F -Aluminium fluoride Al. F 3 -Ca. F 2 , KF , Sodium silicofluoride Sodium Fluoride Formula: Na. F Purity: not less than 98% of Na. F , calculated with reference to the dried substance
Preparation: by neutralizing hydrofluoric acid with Na 2 CO 3 Or by double decomposition of Ca. F 2 with Na 2 CO 3 where in insoluble Ca. CO 3 can be removed by filtration. .
Sodium monoflurophosphate: Also known as SMFP ormula: Na 2 PO 3 F Uses: - for fluoride supplements of diet , fluoridation of H 2 O and in mouth washes - used in dentifrices, particularly toothpastes - it induce better fluoridation and decrease demineralization of dental enamel than Na. F.
Stannus Fluoride Sn. F 2 Formula: Sn. F 2 Purity: contain not less than 71. 2% of stannus ion and NLT 22. 3% and more than 25. 5% of fluoride , calculated on dried basis. Properties: white crystalline powder having unpleasant astringent –salty taste. - soluble in H 2 O but insoluble in alcohol and organic solvents Uses: To prevent dental caries , may cause discoloration of teeth on overuse.
Cleaning agent or Dentifrices: It is material used for cleaning of teeth , can be applied with brush. - applied as a powder of paste. -cleaning property depend on rubbing force used.
Drawback: can not clean surface inside cavities and crevices between teeth. - Dentifrices with useful substance is known as medicated dentifrices. - flavors and colors are used to improve the acceptance. A good cleaning agent remove the stains from teeth.
Cleaning agent or Dentifrices: - calcium phosphate - dibasic and tribasic calcium phosphate -calcium carbonate -Na metaphosphate Calcium Carbonate: - it is incompatible with fluoride salt. it form Ca. F 2 and decrease fluoride ion.
Dicalcium phosphate: Also known as dicalcium orthophosphate or calcium hydrogen phosphate. -occur as a Dihydrate [Ca. HPO 4. 2 H 2 O]
Preparation: by reacting solution of Ca. Cl 2 with disodium hydrogen phosphate. Uses: as electrolyte replenisher , as dentifrices. The Ca. HPO 4 is insoluble in H 2 O but is converted to soluble monobasic calcium phosphate and Ca. Cl 2 by HCl in the stomach.
Calcium phosphate: also known as tribasic calcium phosphate or tricalcium phosphate. Purity: 90% w/w of tricalcium phosphate Uses: - source of Ca , in tablets and dentifrices.
Sodium metaphosphate: -it is Na salt of polymetaphosphoric acid , of indefinite composition -it may consist of hexamer (Na. PO 3)6, having M. Wt. 611. 83 and also known as hexametaphosphate. -its more polymerized form is known as sodium polymetaphosphate.
polymeric sodium metaphosphate [known as Medrell s salt] is prepared by heating Na 2 H 2 PO 4 or Na. NH 4 PO 4 to 250 °C and then to 350 °C, first Na 2 H 2 P 2 O 7 and insoluble Medrell s salt] is obtained. - which is stable up to 500 °C at 505 °C it changes to sodium trimetaphosphate and above 607 °C to hexametaphosphate.
according to masrell , the salt may be prepared by heating two parts of Na. NO 3 with one part of H 3 PO 4. Properties: White, powder soluble in H 2 O, polymorphic form. Uses: anti-rusting agent , emulsifying agent and chelating agent , stabilizing agent. Strontium chloride: Formula: Sr. Cl 2. 6 H 2 O MWt. =266. 6 gm Uses: in medicated dentifrice , as a 10% w/w tooth paste. - very soluble in H 2 O
Pumice: - it is substance of complex silicates of aluminium , K and Na. - it is obtained from volcanic origin Properties: odorless , tasteless, very light , hard, grayish-white powder with finess, stable in air and insoluble in H 2 O. Uses: as a filtering and distributing medium , as abrasive in metal polishes, used in soaps and cleaning powders and in dental preparation.
Polishing agent: -polishing effect by abrasive action. -Desensitizing agents r added to reduce Ʌ sensitivity of teeth to heat and cold.
Desensitizing agent: - teeth r sensitive to heat and cold so desensitizing agents r required - Ʌ exact mechanism is not known but may be like local anesthetic. e. g. strontium chloride, zinc chloride
Strontium chloride: Formula: Sr. Cl 2. 6 H 2 O M. Wt. =226. 6 gm Preparation: prepared by adding strontium carbonate to HCl until effervescence get ceased. Ʌ solution is filtered , concentrated and allowed to crystallize. Use: in medicated dentifrice, as a 10% w/w tooth paste Properties: colorless crystals or white granules, very soluble in H 2 O.
Zinc Chloride: Zn. Cl 2 Uses: as astringent , used in 10% solution , to be applied to Ʌ teeth as a desensitizing agent. Also used in ulcers. Oral antiseptic and fillers: -they can be safely used as a antiseptics in Ʌ oral cavity - H 2 O 2 - Sodium perborate -Mg peroxide
H 2 O 2 : - 3% W/W solution as mouth wash. - The oxygen librated by decomposition of H 2 O 2 kills bacteria. -the fine foam of evolving oxygen can clean the cavities (. ) teeth and cervices. Sodium perborate: Formula: Na. BO 2. H 2 O 2. 3 H 2 O -more soluble than tri-hydrate [Na. BO 2. H 2 O] Properties: colorless, odourless crystals, white powder, stored in tight container as it decompose readily. Uses: as a dis-infectant, deodorant, as a mouth wash.
- use as a dis-infectant and deodorant , bleaching agent.
Mouth washes: Mouth washes have: -zinc sulphate : antiseptic and astringent - zinc chloride : anti-infective and astringent -sodium bicarbonate : antacid - Ammonium silver nitrate : a stringent.
Cement and fillers: -Dental cements: cover and protect area Ʌat have been undergone operation. -it is applied as a paste , which gets hardened and form a protective layer Ʌat can be removed. - it can be medicated with eugenal ( antiseptic and local anesthetic) -its consistency is controlled by additives. - Gold and silver can be used as a permanent materials.
Zinc Oxide : Zn. O -Ʌ best cementing material , mixed with Zn. Cl 2 to hardened in short time. - consistency can be regulated by varying amount. - Hardening depends on the formation of zinc oxychloride -Similar products prepared by mixing Zn. O and H 3 PO 4 resulting in zinc oxyphosphate. -Medicated cement can be prepared by adding eugenol or clove oil.