- Slides: 20
Density Structure of the Ocean
Density Controls • Controlled by: • 1. ) Temperature • 2. ) Salinity • 3. ) Pressure • Density increases with increasing salinity • Density increases with decreasing temperature. • Density increases with increasing pressure. • Density of oceans ranges from 1. 020 g/cm 3 to 1. 030 g/cm 3
Three Density Zones • Surface Zone (mixed layer)-Upper layer of the ocean • Temperature and salinity are constant because of mixing by wind and waves. • Top 100 meters (photic zone) • 2% of ocean water by volume • Pycnocline Zone-Middle layer of the ocean • Density increases rapidly with depth • 18% of ocean water by volume • Depth varies with latitude. • Temperature drops rapidly in this zone (thermocline). Salinity increases rapidly (halocline). • Deep Zone-Deepest ocean layer extending to the ocean floor. • Relatively constant density • 80% of ocean water by volume • Temperature and Salinity constant
Density, Temp. , Salinity Changes with Depth
Pycnocline • Zone in which density increases with increasing depth. • From 0 -1, 000 meters • Increasing density farther down as temperature gets colder.
Halocline • Zone of rapid salinity increase or decrease with depth. • Often coincides with thermocline.
Thermocline • Temperature changes rapidly with depth. • Both thermocline and halocline contribute to form pycnocline since temperature and salinity affect density.
Changes with Latitude
Thermohaline Circulation • Vertical water circulation in the oceans. Results in top-tobottom exchange of water. • Driven by density (Density Currents) • Thermohaline: Thermo (temperature) Haline (Salinity).
Upwelling • Upwelling zones areas where thermohaline circulation is upward toward the ocean surface. • • Cold water and nutrients are brought to the surface. Increased diversity of life in upwelling zones Great fishing in upwelling zone. Upwelling zones include areas of the west coast of California, west coast of South America, and South Africa. • Caused by wind blowing water off the surface and water moving upward to take its place.
Downwelling • Downwelling zones areas where thermohaline circulation is downward.
Vertical Water Masses • • • Surface Water: 0 -200 meters Central Water: To the bottom of thermocline Intermediate Water: to about 1, 500 meters Deep water: to about 4, 000 meters Bottom water: in contact with the seafloor
NADW: North Atlantic Deep Water: -Forms at 50 -60 degrees north latitude -34. 9 PPT salinit -2 to 4 degrees celsius -Sinks and moves south AABW: Antarctic Bottom Water (1, 000 years to go from south pole to equator) - 34. 8 ppt salinity - is -0. 5 degrees celsius AAIW: Antarctic Intermediate Water -Forms at 40 degrees south - is 5 degrees celcius and salinity of 34. 4 ppt