Demonstrative Adjectives Pronouns In Spanish as in English
- Slides: 12
Demonstrative Adjectives & Pronouns
§ In Spanish, as in English, demonstrative adjectives are words that “demonstrate” or “point out” nouns. § Demonstrative adjectives precede the nouns they modify and, like other Spanish adjectives you have studied, agree with them in gender and number. Observe these, then study the chart on the next slide: esta camisa ese vendedor aquellos zapatos this shirt that salesman those shoes (over there)
Demonstrative adjectives SINGULAR PLURAL Masculine Feminine este esta estos estas this; these esa esos esas that; those aquella aquellos aquellas that; those (over there) *Note: The masculine singular forms DO NO end in –o.
§ There are three sets of demonstrative adjectives. § To determine which one to use, you must establish the relationship between the speaker and the noun(s) being pointed out. § este, esta, estos, estas (this/these) – used to point out nouns that are close to the speaker and the listener. (aquí) § ese, esa, esos, esas (that/those) – used to point out nouns that are not close in space and/or time to the speaker. They may, however, be close to the listener. (allí) § aquel, aquella, aquellos, aquellas (that/those) – used to point out nouns that are far away from the speaker and the listener. (allá…en la distancia)
§ When referring to time: § este, esta, estos, estas (this/these) – relate to the present – Esta semana tengo que ir de compras. § ese, esa, esos, esas (that/those) – relate to a period that is relatively near – Ese día fuimos a Boston. § aquel, aquella, aquellos, aquellas (that/those) – En aquel siglo, las mujeres llevaban falda larga. – In that century, women wore long skirts.
§ When referring to two people or things mentioned in a previous sentence, English uses the words “former” and “latter. ” § In Spanish, the demonstratives este (esta) and aquel (aquella) are used for the same purpose. § Aquel= former because it means “that one” – the first one mentioned and the more distant grammatically speaking § Este= latter because it means “this one”-the one mentioned last in the sentence and, consequently, the closer in the order of the presentation. § Note how este (esta) always comes first in Spanish. § Luisa and Raymond got married yesterday. – The former (Luisa) is Spanish and the latter (Raymond) is Portuguese. § Luisa y Ramón se casaron ayer. § Este (Ramón) es portugués y aquella (Lisa) es española.
Demonstrative pronouns § Demonstrative pronouns are identical to their corresponding demonstrative adjectives, with the exception that they carry an accent mark on the stressed vowel. *THIS IS NO LONGER REQUIRED BY THE ROYAL ACADEMY OF SPAIN. However, many native speakers continue to use them in their writing for purposes of clarity. —¿Quieres comprar este suéter? Do you want to buy this sweater? —No, no quiero este (éste). Quiero ese (ése). No, I don’t want this one. I want that one.
Demonstrative pronouns SINGULAR PLURAL Masculine Feminine éste ésta éstos éstas ése ésa ésos ésas aquélla aquéllos aquéllas Note: These are no longer necessary though will continue to be seen in writing.
§ There are three neuter demonstrative pronouns: esto, eso, & aquello. These forms refer to: – ideas / facts – concepts – situations – an object that has not been identified § They do not change in gender or number and never carry an accent mark. – ¿Qué es esto? – Eso es interesante. – Aquello es bonito. – Eso no es verdad. What’s this? That’s interesting. That’s pretty That (what you said) isn’t true. § *Note: the neuter pronouns always end in –o.
§ In Spanish, the definite article (el, la, los, las) is used instead of the demonstrative pronoun before: – a phrase that begins with de – a relative clause introduced by que § Quiero este reloj y el de oro. § I want this watch and the gold one. § La que habló primero fue la mejor. § The woman (the one) who spoke first was the best. §
¡ATENCIÓN! § Like demonstrative adjectives, demonstrative pronouns agree in gender and number with the corresponding noun. Este libro es de Pablito. Estos son de Juana.
¡INTÉNTALO! Provide the correct form of the demonstrative adjective for these nouns. 1. la falda / este ______ 6. las empleadas / ese ______ 2. los estudiantes / este ______ 7. el chico / aquel ______ 3. los países / aquel ______ 8. las sandalias / este ______ 4. la ventana / ese ______ 9. el autobús / ese ______ 5. los periodistas / ese ______ 10. las chicas / aquel ______