Deliverable 6: Grounded Innovation Map
Grounded Innovation Map: Contents • Introduction – Relation to other WP 2 deliverables – Methodology: How was it created? – Purpose: what’s its status? – Function: A bridge to design and other artefacts • Content – “Things” – “Space” – “People” – “Time” • Future Directions – Fieldwork illustrations – Innovation points – Use & extension of map • Conclusions
Relation to other WP 2 deliverables Workpackage 2 Understanding the experience of media intimacy in the domestic environment D 2, D 3 D 6, D 8 Previous Studies New studies for MIME D 2: Analysis of previous studies of the home and relevant literature D 3: Translation to design objectives Consideration of ethnographic material relative to the fundamental objectives of MIME regarding intimate media D 6: Grounded Innovation Map Interim results from new MIME field studies which have been analysed and translated to a map for design purposes D 8: Analysis of MIME studies Accumulated results of ethnography delivered in a form relevant to other workpackages
Methodology: How was it created? Ethnomethodology (ways people order the world) Field studies (ethnographic accounts) Technological inspiration Ethnographer D 6: Grounded Design Map MIME vision Initial Design Concepts (brainstorming & scenarios) Iterative process (opportunities) Designer Summary of research and analysis of initial concepts • Built bottom up from both field study instances and from design/technological concepts • Reorganised/recategorised top down. • An articulating mechanism which is continually revised as new material is brought in. Need for coherent articulation of domain issues
Purpose ethnography design MAP • a communication mechanism – a point of articulation between design and ethnography – not an artefact of either discipline • used for: – a way of finding what’s novel in the research – made particular through reference to instances in the fieldwork – a way of presenting the spread (across this domestic/intimate space) of a particular scenario / point instance
Status of the map • a heuristic – no truth claim, its verification/validation is in its use – purpose-specific, adequate to its task • a moving target – being continually revised and re-annotated • It is not intended to be self sufficient. It does not contain everything needed to understand it. Rather, it is: – mnemonic, a way of remembering details – articulatory, a way of occasioning particular ethnographic accounts / recollections for debriefing – organising, a way of providing coherent and interesting cuts on the ethnographic data and building towards a collective (purposeful) understanding of the domestic/intimate space
Relation to other methodological artefacts Understanding the domain ethnography Inspiring (& grounding) the design framing questions MAP designers’ questions domains, activities design dimensions design guidelines
Relation to other methodological artefacts • Domains, activities – Ethnography is the study of activities within domains and consequently the choice of which activities and domains has a practical impact. • Framing questions / Designers questions – While ethnography does not impose a pre-existing theory and is non-presumptive as to what will be found, neither is it aimless, but rather studies start with framing questions. – When doing ethnography in a dialogue with design for the purpose of innovation, an effective iterative method is to use designers’ questions to fold back into the ongoing study. • Design Dimensions – Through creating and working with the map, dimensions along which groupings are differentiated may be identified. Again the status of these dimensions is as potentially useful for design, rather than universal ontologies or implicit categories of the world. Capturing and articulating these dimensions may have value beyond a particular design exercise and is a stepping stone to design guidelines and innovation. • Design Guidelines (Deliverable 12) – Design guidelines attempt to encapsulate a key finding of the domain in a prescriptive form (they are not strictly rules, but do point to areas where to break the guideline should occasion considerable thought and explicit justification).
Examples of framing questions • What do we know about the nature of domestic life? • What makes home different from other places? • Where do you find ‘intimate media’? • What is ‘intimacy’? • What do ‘intimate media’ and ‘intimacy’ look like in the real world? • What kind of phenomena are we talking about designing for? • Are our presuppositions correct?
Examples of Activities in the domestic domain • reminiscing • being together • decorating • "rearranging" (e. g. rearranging rooms/furniture when new baby arrives) • keeping in touch (both with extended members of family and co-residents) • parenting • having a lodger • throwing stuff out • having a spring clean • keeping things for later • having a meal • collecting • daily routine • greetings and departures
Examples of designer’s questions (reframed in ethnographically-studiable terms) • How do people do ‘making it mine’? and How do they do ‘treating it as yours’? • How do people do adding and augmenting to what they’ve already got? And How do they do ‘replacing’ what they’ve got? • How do people orient to certain spaces for the doing of certain activities? And How do people do adapting those spaces for the doing of other things? (and for the purposes of what? ) • What devices do people use in their homes? To what ends and in what circumstances? • What do people do to make things go together coherently (i. e. what are the situated logics of assembly? )? • How do people do orienting to artefacts (as opposed to other people)? And How do people achieve the very artefactal status of those things? (and for the purposes of what? ) • How do people go about configuring things? To what ends? And How is that occasioned? and more…
Example of design dimensions* Something that comes up in several places: sorting/sedimentation/framing. This is clearly a continuum of different activities. There are two key “dimensions” which are interesting from a design / user arch. perspective attended-to (explicit/marked) side-effect explicit ordering as an attended-to activity sorting keeping things sorted for use sedimentation things are used and the result is available for “reading” putting things together to get a collective meaning – also covers contiguity/proximity framing y pla dis for- things gain an order because of the way in which they are used se u by- * work in progress towards deliverable 12
Map Overview Home / Intimate Media Time Things Home / Intimate Media People Space
Map Overview Selection Ownership Provenance Pattern / Order Time Things Lifecycle Home / Intimate Media People Space Affect Ordering methods (e. g. Proximity) Shared / unshared Investment, maintenance Displaying group membership Order in topological space (Place)
Map categorisation Things • Categories: Map categories are heuristic – there is no assertion of universality or ontology for these categories Lifecycle sort / collect / arrange – they are deliberately purpose-specific, in that they are chosen to be useful to design: e. g. inspiration, constructive insight, reminders, correctives keeping things in order – they should not be seen as an attempt to make a comprehensively exhaustive analysis in terms of mutually exclusive categories. • Terms: The terms used are intended to be suggestive rather self-explanatory or a definitive sense. • Levels: Grouping the categories is intended to convey a sense of increasing specificity (as loosely indicated by the colour/style hierarchy)
Things souvenirs fun/transient make-do my artefacts in other’s houses hand me down borrowing building swapping finding trading nicking (stealing) Provenance taking objects with you my artefacts when visiting shared vs personal obligation gifts accumulative evolving purchases augment replacement politeness join, link visitor’s artefacts Ownership Lifecycle sort / collect / arrange lost, stolen, borrowed Time Things throwing away Home / Intimate Media People Space filing keep / throw away keeping things in order keeping for someone else keeping
About Things • Provenance – Where things come from is of importance to how things are oriented to (sci. intimacy) and what stories and activities are occasioned around them. – How do things arrive into the home, and how are they integrated into the home? – How much / how long is their provenance still available to residents of the home? – How much is provenance of a personal object shared amongst home residents? • Lifecycle – Things in the home are not static, but rather their use evolves over time – they are placed in collections, they are used (or used up), they are augmented and changed, they are sorted and kept and (occasionally) cleared out and thrown away. . • Ownership – Not all items in the home are owned equally by all. People arrive in your house with their own artefacts. A new item in the home may be a genuine new item of this home, or it may only be a visiting item with the politeness paid to guests, and the restricted access allowed to guests. – Thus it is important to note that any system of organisation has to pay attention to ownership
Time Things Space Home / Intimate Media People Space Ordering methods (e. g. Proximity) ad hoc usages inertia (habit) Order in topological space (Place) centre on place overload containment noticeable dedicate, assign “done in doing” unremarkable continually recreated tacit gradient of intimacy “gross semantics of place” / shared local understanding
About Space • Order in topological space (Place) – The space of the home is not simply Cartesian (physical coordinations), but more topological (e. g. rooms). Within that topology, there is a socially-significant semantics: • whose space, the purpose of this place, the difference of this place from that place, limitations of access to places (a gradient of intimacy*) • at the room level and within it there are further local and smaller-scale semantics (e. g. this corner, the shelf with my videos, this box) • Ordering methods Ordering (e. g. Proximity)methods (e. g. Proximity) – Additionally space in the home is used as both an order and an ordering device • Arranging things in space is a deeply fundamental method for making sense of and organising the world. * • The order of place can be a backdrop and a resource for action, activities and living. The term and initial observation comes originally from A Pattern Language § 127, Christopher Alexander et al (1977, New York: Oxford University Press)
crying (respect for) privacy us/them Time Displaying emotion People Things Home / Intimate Media People Space boundaries, access from the inside / from the outside understood / not understood product of membership Shared meaning symbols unmarked Displaying group membership invitations remark-able the work of membership sharing customisations recipientdesigned Investment, maintenance telling stories / jokes obligation keeping in touch newsletters lost/absent friends performing membership engaging in intimacy/membership finding-out, catching-up remotely news catching up house book institutional round robin
About People meaning • Shared meaning – whether meanings are shared or unshared is a critical element of an understanding of intimate media and contribute to “what makes a house a home”. • Displaying group Displaying membershipgroup membership – Group membership can have a definitional role for oneself and how you are perceived by others – The display of group membership for self and others in the home can be a form of intimate media Investment, • maintenance Investment/Maintenance – Relationships with others requires investment / maintenance (Activities such as keeping in touch, or catching up. - telephoning, writing a letter or a newsletter, passing on jokes). These relationships can also have an obligational character – Some activities can be viewed purely as “engaging in intimacy” rather than something as explicit as catching up • Displaying emotion – Emotion has clear relevance to the concept of intimate media, but one should note that the significance of an emotional display is interpreted by people. Counterexample can reveal this (such as parents judging that a child is “just putting it on”)
Time gatherings birthdays, weddings, private events christmas, etc. – public events for objects/rooms for people (bounded) episodes constantly recreate (customisations) (calendar) events traces/records Selection planning, coordinating anticipations / predictions looking forward day-to-day routines Pattern / Order Time know other’s coordination and awareness Things Home / Intimate Media mundane / gross / shared People Space
About Time Pattern / • Order. Pattern/Order – Patterns and orders of time have great significance in the home. Orienting to time can be on the basis of regularity and tacitness. • Individuals’ routines are complemented by an awareness of others’ routines. Indeed, this is often central to “living together. ” • Awareness of routines are often tacit, while many kinds of episode are on the contrary explicitly attended to and carefully demarcated (e. g. a child leaving the house), within an overall routine. • One-off (or calendar) events have a different shape again, being neither part of the foreground (episodes) nor background (routine) of daily life, but instead defining themselves against the backdrop of daily life • Selection – Another element of time with significance for the home as an intimate media environment is that through selection, some events in the past or future are given more here-and-now relevance. This can be either through: • Trace/Records: some impacts of the past can be seen through involuntary (traces) and others through more purposeful marks (records) which have lasted to the present. • Anticipations, predictions and preparations for the future
Fieldwork illustrations • Ethnographic input has already been a key driver behind the production of the map in total. Here, the exercise is one of illustrating points in the map through specific fieldwork material. – Not every fieldwork observation/instance will have an attached image or video, however for the purposes of this deliverable, we have chosen a few instances with a photographic record. • Field work instances are most likely relevant to multiple places on the map (and conversely places on the map might draw on multiple instances). However we’ve tried to give examples which place field work at one location where it is likely to be of impact. (Tr) Sorting post-it notes takes work to make available – a relevant instance from fieldwork (brackets indicate site) – an ethnographic reference (mnemonic)
Instances from Fieldwork: Things souvenirs (Printers) Borrowed Tools, CDs my artefacts in other’s houses (MC) fridge magnets fun/transient make-do hand me down borrowing building finding trading Provenance (MC) Workmen taking calls in MC’s house obligation gifts swapping (Web designer) Gifts of Jam accumulative nicking (MC) Electrician leaving coat hanger taking objects with you my artefacts when visiting shared vs personal (WD) Sun-object gift from wife (MC) letter opener purchases evolving (Tr) New computer sitting next to couch augment replacement politeness join, link (MC) replacement loo-seat visitor’s artefacts (Tr) Sorting post-it notes Ownership Lifecycle throwing away (MC) Fireplace removed from living room filing (MC) Prize of a holiday (MC) bookshelf near desk sort / collect / arrange keeping (Tr)Dictionaries things in order lost, stolen, borrowed Things (MC) Sorting the post keep / throw away keeping for someone else (WD)jokes for wife keeping (Tr) love poem (Tr) Arrangements of photos
Sun object – At least a part of how people orient to things has to do with their provenance, with some things being gifts which it is an obligation to keep - – a husband toys with an object he has been given by his wife then puts it back on his desk, but how would it be if he were to pick it up and toss it in the bin, or to kiss it fondly
Instances from Fieldwork: Space Ordering methods (e. g. Proximity) ad hoc usages Order in topological space (Place) centre on place overload containment noticeable (? ) Queues inertia (habit) (Tr) knocking down and picking up photo “done in doing” unremarkable continually recreated dedicate, assign (Tr) work video collection in work area, domestic video collection next to VCR (upstairs) (Tr) Taking different phone calls in different parts of the house (e. g. music / piano) tacit gradient of intimacy “gross semantics of place” / shared local understanding (WD) heighboour (accountant) visiting
Knocking down and picking up photo IMAGE – There is a certain stability to the home, and it is not continually redesigned on the grounds of productivity. On the contrary, things can acquire an inertia and a familiar place (a “home”). At the same time, productivity and the ability to function effectively does assert itself through necessity (in the video (available deliverable 2), the translator repeatedly knocks over and reinstates the photo which is in her way before eventually moving it). The distribution of objects through the domestic space is a careful balance of different needs.
Instances from Fieldwork: People Time Displaying emotion crying Home / Intimate Media (? ) child crying but “just play acting” (respect for) privacy us/them People Space boundaries, access from the inside / from the outside (Printers) clicking =muslim prayer Things understood / not understood at a glance available product of membership Shared meaning (Tr) fiddling with ring the work of being a member unmarked (Tr) fiddling with religious? card as contrast to surrounding activity remark-able (Tr) “fuck-it” button + boundedness with ethnographer symbols Displaying group membership (MC) family website (MC) Chelsea Football Club documentary evidences (Garfinkel) invitations (Tr) receiving invitation to art gallery the work of membership sharing customisations recipientdesigned Investment, maintenance telling stories / jokes obligation keeping in touch newsletters lost/absent friends performing membership takes work to make available engaging in intimacy/membership (? ) Reading together (Tr) circulating joke to friends (Tr) saying goodbye finding-out, catching-up remotely news catching up house book institutional round robin
Reading together – The explicit activity is one of reading, but engaging in the activity together (even just doing the same thing close to each other) implicitly also is an investment and maintenance of the family relationship.
Chelsea Football Club – The membership of this group (Chelsea supporter) is visually displayed in numerous artefacts and collections of artefacts around the home. Such displays work for oneself and/or others. Here these displays cross multiple media and furthermore membership is “displayed” as a shared topic of conversation on the telephone.
Instances from Fieldwork: Time gatherings (MC) Carpet replaced by BBC -> occasions a story (cf Souvenirs) birthdays, weddings, private events christmas, etc. – public events for objects/rooms (bounded) episodes constantly recreate (customisations) (Tr) Saying goodbye routine for people (calendar) events traces/records Selection planning, coordinating anticipations / predictions looking forward day-to-day routines Pattern / Order Time know other’s coordination and awareness Home / Intimate Media mundane / gross / shared (MC) Preparing lunch (WD) Preparing lunch Things People Space
Saying goodbye routine – Everyday routines can reflect a time-based order to the day, in which intimate occasions such as this are routinely inserted.
Innovation points • potential connection points for WP 3 for the future (To Inform and Inspire Technological development) – generate features for prototypes – extend and enrich technological/design concepts through exploring what they would mean in the light of alternative areas of the map – means to show coverage of existing research – means to highlight underexplored areas in the map collages (public and private) – a design concept or area of potential technological innovation
Things adaptive/ empty tool souvenirs fun/transient make-do my artefacts in other’s houses + communicatio n channel access to content hand me down borrowing obligation gifts building swapping finding trading Provenance accumulative nicking evolving taking objects with you my artefacts when visiting shared vs personal purchases augment replacement politeness join, link visitor’s artefacts Ownership Lifecycle collages (public and private) sort / collect / arrange keeping things in order lost, stolen, borrowed Things early draft of innovation points throwing away filing keep / throw away keeping for someone else keeping adding the physical to digital systems resistance, aging, ripples, drag, overflow, etc
Space Ordering methods (e. g. Proximity) ad hoc usages tangible inertia (habit) Order in topological space (Place) centre on place overload containment noticeable early draft of innovation points dedicate, assign “done in doing” unremarkable continually recreated tacit gradient of intimacy “gross semantics of place” / shared local understanding
Displaying emotion crying (respect for) privacy us/them People boundaries, access from the inside / from the outside understood / not understood product of membership Shared meaning symbols unmarked Displaying group membership invitations maps remark-able the work of membership sharing customisations recipientdesigned Investment, maintenance telling stories / jokes obligation keeping in touch performing membership engaging in intimacy/membership newsletters lost/absent friends early draft of innovation points finding-out, catching-up remotely news ambient telepresence catching up house book institutional round robin
Time pixelate, anonymous, shadows, timelapse, texture flows, random etc gatherings pattern amplifica tion / corruptio n pattern detection for people for objects/rooms (bounded) episodes constantly recreate (customisations) birthdays, weddings, private events literal vs distorted christmas, etc. – public events traces/records (calendar) events Selection planning, coordinating anticipations / predictions looking forward day-to-day Pattern / Order routines Time know other’s coordination and awareness Home / Intimate Media mundane / gross / shared early draft of innovation points Things People Space
Use & extension of map The map is a basis for dialog between ethnography and design, not a substitute • Use of map: – extension of design concepts (lay a concept next to a particular node in the map) – looking for design concepts which have a wide extension across map – arrange design concepts against background of map • Extensions of map – enlarge and deepen map from ongoing fieldwork and from ongoing dialogue between ethnography and design/technology – work on recurrent ordering themes and articulate as “design dimensions” – in working with the map and design dimension extract potential design guidelines for deliverable 12
Conclusions • This grounded innovation map has been produced as a working method to bridge between ethnography and design. It is an artefact for evolution, as the basis for dialogue with design and informative for technology innovation. It lays out a map for the situation of use of disappearing computer technologies within the domestic environment and lays the basis for designing for a coherent experience.