Debora Tolliver ECSU EDU 563 June 2012 A

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Debora Tolliver ECSU EDU 563 June 2012 A TIME LINE FOR CONNECTICUT’S STONEWALLS http:

Debora Tolliver ECSU EDU 563 June 2012 A TIME LINE FOR CONNECTICUT’S STONEWALLS http: //gonewengland. about. com/library/users/ucctstonewall. htm

The Age of Ice & Pre-European North America • 23, 000 years ago: Laurentide

The Age of Ice & Pre-European North America • 23, 000 years ago: Laurentide ice sheet begins to retreat • 20, 000 years ago: sea levels rising because of deglaciation • 16, 000 -17, 000 years ago: Southern New England deglaciation (tundra conditions) • 13, 000 -14, 000 years ago: Northern New England deglaciation (tundra conditions) • 9, 000 -10, 000 years ago: Closedcanopy deciduous forest • 1, 000 years ago: Deforestation http: //clasfaculty. ucdenver. edu/callen/1202/Climate/Gen. Circulation/Laurentide. jpg

 • 1500 -1600: Coastal exploration and fishing stations • 1607: North Virginia Company

• 1500 -1600: Coastal exploration and fishing stations • 1607: North Virginia Company • 1620: Plymouth Colony (Pilgrims) • 1630: Massachusetts Bay Colony • 1692: Town of Lebanon, CT was deeded to a collective of colonists • 1695: 350 settlers took place in Lebanon, CT • 1711 -1734: Cattle drives from Lebanon, CT to Boston, MA created a network of roads and a system of water management, including dams and mills http: //www. hinmanfamily. com/strat. htm Coastal Living (1500 -1740) Early Plantations & Colonial Towns

Rapid Interior Settlement (1740 -1830) brought intense building of stone walls http: //www. stonewall.

Rapid Interior Settlement (1740 -1830) brought intense building of stone walls http: //www. stonewall. uconn. edu/ Classification. htm http: //jmsalsich. edublogs. org/2011/06/15/ a-childs-day-in-colonial-connecticut/ http: //www. stonewall. uconn. edu/ Geogof. Wall. Gallery. htm http: //www. theday. com/images/static/PDF/elan_fall_2009. pdf http: //robertfrostoutloud. com/Mending. Wall. html

http: //earthquake. usgs. gov/earthquakes/states/events/ 1755_11_18. php http: //www. ranker. com/pics/N 1000109535/ mount-tambora-event-photo-u 1 •

http: //earthquake. usgs. gov/earthquakes/states/events/ 1755_11_18. php http: //www. ranker. com/pics/N 1000109535/ mount-tambora-event-photo-u 1 • 1755: The Great Earthquake (Cape Ann, MA) many stone walls tipped • 1763: Treaty of Paris ended the French and Indian War • 1776 -1783: Revolutionary war left many farms untended and fieldstones accumulated faster than they could be hauled away • 1775 -1825: The Frenzy of wall building millions of stone walls were built • 1787 -1794: Agricultural societies and journals were established in every state • 1816: The year without a summer Tambora Volcano in Indonesia eruptions and ash darkened the skies • 1819: Market panic – U. S. farm production fell to less than half their former, long-term average

Connecticut http: //www. historyoflebanon. org/ aboutus. htm • 1796: Lebanon, CT had more than

Connecticut http: //www. historyoflebanon. org/ aboutus. htm • 1796: Lebanon, CT had more than 13, 700 acres of cattle pasture on the town’s tax list • 1800: only 4% of Connecticut residents lived in cities, every third person was a child younger than 5 years old, and only one person in six was older than 45 • 1800 -1830: Economic reasons for using stones for fences: shortage of wood and abundance of stones, ended labor cost of repeated fence construction, conserve disappearing timber resources • 1811: City of New Haven consumed 7, 500 full cords of wood http: //freepages. genealogy. rootsweb. ancestry. com/~woodworth/ne/lebanon. htm

Changes in Farming and Trade http: //www. greatlakescruising. com/bssa/locks-legends. php • 1812 -1840: Tools

Changes in Farming and Trade http: //www. greatlakescruising. com/bssa/locks-legends. php • 1812 -1840: Tools for farming changed horse-drawn hay rake widespread in 1820 s; multi-bottomed metal plows and specialized seed drills in 1830 s; Mc. Cormic’s mechanical reaper in 1834 • 1819 -1829: Watershed decade for New England • 1825: Erie Canal completed • 1829: First overland railroad ended the Watershed decade http: //historicaltidbits. blogspot. com/2011/10/ 1829 -lion-railroad-locomotive. html http: //www. machine-history. com/Agricultural%20 Machinery

http: //freepages. genealogy. rootsweb. ancestry. com/~blinkofamily/pafx 10. htm http: //www. dipity. com/ Griffincrowley/personal/ http:

http: //freepages. genealogy. rootsweb. ancestry. com/~blinkofamily/pafx 10. htm http: //www. dipity. com/ Griffincrowley/personal/ http: //www. nps. gov/history/onli ne_books/civil_war_series/15/sec 8. htm • 1861 -1864: Civil war • 1852: Rock crusher (stone eating monster) invented and accelerated disappearance of stone walls • 1862: Homestead Act gave away rich fertile land • 1874: barbed wire came into widespread use • 1908: Ford Motor Company Model T http: //www. arthursclipart. org/transport/land/cars/ page_01. htm

Abandonment of farms (1830 -1910) http: //www. beavercoveart. com/1902 Farms. AG. jpg

Abandonment of farms (1830 -1910) http: //www. beavercoveart. com/1902 Farms. AG. jpg

Department of Agriculture New England Stone Wall Fencing Census & Report (1871 -1872) the

Department of Agriculture New England Stone Wall Fencing Census & Report (1871 -1872) the first and last national census on fences • Approximately 240, 000 miles (819, 088, 710 feet) of stone walls in New England. That’s longer that the U. S. coastline, or even the distance to the Moon at perigee! • It has been estimated that forty million man days of effort would have been required to build them. Furthermore, the census indicates that the average length of stone wall around an average 107 acre New England farm could have been built with a two-man crew in less than two days per year. The average farmer probably spent twenty-two times as much effort to heat his home as to clear his fields of stone. • 33% of the fences in Connecticut were being made of (or partly made of) stone

Rediscovery of Rural New England (20 th Century) • 1910 -1968: Suburban expansion changed

Rediscovery of Rural New England (20 th Century) • 1910 -1968: Suburban expansion changed the attitudes toward New England stone walls • Early 1900 s: Archaeologists, landscape architects, physical geographers, foresters, soil scientists, and engineers began to locate and describe stone walls • End of 1800 s to mid-1900 s: Stone walls were being filtered through poetry, paintings, novels, photographs, and oral traditions • Howard Mansfield (writer: In the Memory House) • Henry David Thoreau (writer) • Robert Frost (writer: poem - Mending Wall) • J. B. Jackson (writer) • Eric Sloane (writer) • George Perkins (writer: Man and Nature) • J. Alden Weir (artist) • Samuel Chamberlain (photographer) • Wallace Nutting (photographer) http: //poulwebb. blogspot. com/2012/01/julian-alden-weir-part-1. html

Suburbanization/sprawl (1960 -1980) http: //www. istockphoto. com/stoc k-illustration-1585993 -connecticuthighway-map-vector. php • Made possible by

Suburbanization/sprawl (1960 -1980) http: //www. istockphoto. com/stoc k-illustration-1585993 -connecticuthighway-map-vector. php • Made possible by the interstate highway system • CT River Valley (from New Haven, CT to Brattleboro, VT) was nearly fully developed • Early part of sprawl focused on toxic waste or on preserving wilderness areas • Aldo Leopold (Sand Country Almanac) • Rachel Carson (The Sea Around Us) • Bill Mc. Kibben (The End of Nature) • 1969: National Environmental Protection Act • 1971: Curtis Fields book The Forgotten Art of Building Stone Walls • 1969 -present: environmental awareness http: //www. barharborbookshop. com/ap_curtis_fields_p. html

Gungywamp near Groton CT http: //polizeros. com/2007/10/07/gungywamp/ References • Thorson, R. M. (2002). Stone

Gungywamp near Groton CT http: //polizeros. com/2007/10/07/gungywamp/ References • Thorson, R. M. (2002). Stone by stone: The magnificent history in New England’s stone walls. New York, NY: Walker & Company. Resources for Education • • The Stone Wall Initiative (SWI) Education: http: //stonewall. uconn. edu/Education. htm • • • Stone Walls of North Eastern Connecticut: http: //www. qvctc. commnet. edu/brian/smith/stone. html The Geology of Colonial New England Stone Walls: http: //www. primaryresearch. org/stonewalls/schweizer/index. php Stone Wall Preservation Laws: http: //www. cga. ct. gov/2009/rpt/2009 -R-0194. htm Stone Wall Preservation (SWI): http: //stonewall. uconn. edu/Conserve. Intro. htm Robert M. Thorson Books Hartland Land Trust Stone Wall Discovery Project: http: //www. hartlandtrust. org/stonewalls. html

Curriculum standards - 4 th grade integrated unit Stone Walls in Connecticut Social Studies:

Curriculum standards - 4 th grade integrated unit Stone Walls in Connecticut Social Studies: (S. S. Curriculum Framework 2011) • 1. 2: Significant events in local and Connecticut history and their connections to United States history • GLE 4: Research the significance of CT historical sites • GLE 5: Analyze the impact of historical changes on the state or region • 1. 4: Geographical space and place. • GLE 8: Locate man-made and physical characteristics of Connecticut • 1. 8: The Interactions between citizens and their government in the making and implementing of laws • GLE 15: Explain the process for making and implementing laws in Connecticut • 1. 10: How limited resources influence economic decisions • GLE 19: Hypothesize how people use their personal resources • 2. 1: Access and gather information from a variety of primary and secondary sources including electronic media • GLE 4: Summarize information from primary and secondary sources • 2. 2: Interpret information from a variety of primary and secondary sources including electronic media • GLE 6: Distinguish between useful and irrelevant information

Curriculum standards - 4 th grade integrated unit Stone Walls in Connecticut Social Studies:

Curriculum standards - 4 th grade integrated unit Stone Walls in Connecticut Social Studies: (continued) • 2. 3: Create various forms of written work to demonstrate an understanding of history and social studies issues • GLE 7: Create written work to describe historical events, people and/or places using evidence • GLE 8: Organize information in outlines and graphic organizers • 2. 4: Demonstrate an ability to participate in social studies discourse through informed discussion, debate and effective oral presentation • GLE 9: Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions with diverse partners on social studies topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly • GLE 10: Present information orally and answer questions about a social studies topic • 2. 5: Create and present relevant social studies materials using both print and electronic media • GLE 11: Prepare accurate charts or graphs depicting relevant social studies information • 3. 3: Apply appropriate historical, geographic, political, economic and cultural concepts and methods in proposing and evaluating solutions to contemporary problems • GLE 4: Analyze articles from appropriate sources that propose solutions to contemporary issues

Curriculum standards - 4 th grade integrated unit Stone Walls in Connecticut Arts: (Arts

Curriculum standards - 4 th grade integrated unit Stone Walls in Connecticut Arts: (Arts Curriculum Framework) • ART – CS 4: History and Cultures - recognize that the visual arts have a history and a variety of cultural purposes and meanings • Art – CS 6: Connections – recognize that works of visual art are produced by artisans and artists working in different cultures, times and places • MUSIC – CS 4: Composition – Create and arrange music to accompany readings or dramatizations Language Arts: (Common Core State Standards) • RI. 4. 3: Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the text • RI. 4. 6: Compare and contrast a firsthand secondhand account of the same event or topic; describe the differences in focus and the information provided • W. 4. 1: Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information • W. 4. 8: Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information, and provide a list of sources • W. 4. 9: Draw evidence from literary or information texts to support analysis, reflection, and research • SL. 4. 1: Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.

Curriculum standards - 4 th grade integrated unit Stone Walls in Connecticut Mathematics: (Common

Curriculum standards - 4 th grade integrated unit Stone Walls in Connecticut Mathematics: (Common Core State Standards) • 4. MD. 6: Measure angles in whole-number degrees using a protractor. Sketch angles of specified measure • 4. G. 1: Draw points, line segments, rays, angles (right, acute, obtuse), and perpendicular and parallel lines. Identify these in two-dimensional figures Science: (Science Curriculum Standards 2011) • 4. 2. a. : When the environment changes, some organisms survive and reproduce, and others die or move to new locations. • GLE 1: Give examples of ways that living and nonliving things are interdependent within an ecosystem • GLE 2: Draw diagrams showing how the sun’s energy enters and is transferred from producers to consumers in a local land or aquatic food chain • GLE 3: Design and conduct simple investigations to record interactions among producers, consumers, herbivores, carnivores, omnivores and decomposers in an ecosystem • GLE 4: Analyze food webs to describe how energy is transferred from plants to various animals in an ecosystem • GLE 5: Distinguish between naturally occurring changes in ecosystems and those caused by human activity • GLE 6: Predict the effect an environmental change, such as drought or forest destruction, might have on the community of living things