- Slides: 30
Day 70: The Ordeal of Reconstruction 1865 -1877 Baltimore Polytechnic Institute December 14, 2015 A/A. P. U. S. History Mr. Green
Objective The students will be able to evaluate the extent to which freed slaves and rebel leaders would be admitted to the union by analyzing Presidential and Congressional Reconstruction plans.
Announcements Unit 5 Test-Multiple Choice section on Friday APUSH-Writing is on Monday
The Ordeal of Reconstruction 18651877 Objectives: Define the major problems facing the nation and the South after the Civil War. Describe the responses of both whites and African Americans to the end of slavery. Analyze the differences between the presidential and congressional approaches to Reconstruction. Explain how the blunders of President Johnson and the resistance of the white South opened the door to the Republicans’ radical Reconstruction AP Focus The Union victory is significant in transforming and diversifying the South’s production. It also represents the defeat of the planterslaveholder and the continued rise of the industrial capitalist. In the aftermath of the war, especially in those southern states that reenter the Union under Johnson’s lenient plan, Black Codes again segregate and subordinate the South’s blacks. Organizations, such as the Ku Klux Klan and the Knights of the White Camellia, use violence and intimidation to deny blacks access to institutions, such as voting, that would improve their lives. Blacks are reduced to a form of slavery without chains, in that they are economically dependent and subservient to the owner of the land on which they are sharecroppers.
Chapter Focus CHAPTER THEMES Johnson’s political blunders and Southern white recalcitrance led to the imposition of congressional military Reconstruction on the South. Reconstruction did address difficult issues of reform and racial justice in the South and achieved some successes, but was ultimately abandoned, leaving a deep legacy of racial and sectional bitterness. During Reconstruction, the Constitution was strengthened with the Fourteenth (citizenship and equal protection of the laws) and Fifteenth (black voting rights) Amendments, but it was also tested with the conflicts between the president and Congress that culminated in an impeachment process.
Warm-up? The Problems of Peace 1. How would the South be rebuilt? 2. How would liberated blacks fare as free men and women? 3. How would the Southern states be reintegrated into the Union? 4. Who would direct the process of Reconstruction? 5. What should happen to the Confederate leaders? Slave-owners lost some $2 billion in slaves “damn yankees”, “your government”
Rebel troops evacuating Charleston blew up military supplies to deny them to General William Tecumseh Sherman’s forces. The explosions ignited fires that all but destroyed the city.
Freedmen Define Freedom Emancipation followed the Union Army. Slaves were freed then re-enslaved, then freed, then re-enslaved Some displayed loyalty to plantation, others pillaged African-American churches doubled in size after Emancipation Whole communities moved together. Exodusters Education key to freedom-Education societies
The Freedmen’s Bureau Created on March 3, 1865 to address the transition to freedom Provide: 1. food 2. Clothing 3. Medical care 4. Education-blacks/white refugees Not all good-some collaborated with planters in removing blacks from towns or signing labor contracts with former masters
Johnson: The Tailor President Came from humble beginnings Served in the House and refused to secede when Tennessee did Supporter of states’ rights
Presidential Reconstruction Lincoln’s 10% plan a state could be re-admitted when 10% of its voters from the 1860 Presidential election took an oath of allegiance to the U. S. creation of a formal state government Congress in 1865 Wade-Davis Bill: 50% needed to take the oath Lincoln pocket-vetoed the bill in 1864 Johnson’s plan disfranchised Confederates with taxable property more than $20, 000 -except for pardons repeal ordinances of secession repudiate Confederate debt ratify 13 th amendment
The Baleful Black Codes Black codes-regulated the affairs of the emancipated blacks Created the share-cropping class of emancipated blacks and landless whites African-Americans not allowed to 1. Serve on a jury 2. Rent/own land 3. Punished for idleness The North looked down on the South for this reaction
Congressional Reconstruction Many ex-Confederates won state elections as senators and representatives The North enjoyed free reign during the war Morrill Tariff, Pacific Railroad Act, Homestead Act With newly freed slaves, the South population was about to explode and increase their power Johnson claims southern states met readmission conditions on Dec 6, 1865
13 th Amendment 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
Civil Rights Act of 1866 Quiz You will have 7 minutes to identify 3 main points from the Civil Rights Act of 1866. You may refer to the Act itself but you will have 7 minutes to identify (bullet points are fine) 3 different points the Act addresses or attempts to change.
Johnson clashes with Congress Johnson vetoed and Congress overrode the Civil Rights Bill of 1866 which granted citizenship to freed slaves 14 th Amendment 1. Civil Rights/Citizenship 2. reduced representation if a state denied African-Americans the right to vote 3. disqualified former Confederates as federal office-holders 4. guaranteed federal debt/repudiated Confederate debt
Swinging “round the circle with Johnson” Johnson’s lack of vote-getting in the midterms of 1866 resulted in a 2/3 majority for the Republicans in both houses of Congress
Republican Principles and Programs Charles Sumner-led radicals in the Senate Thaddeus Stevens-led radicals in the House Radical Republicans keep Southern states out as long as possible use federal power Moderate Republicans restrain states from denying citizens’ rights limited federal authority had the upper hand
Reconstruction by the Sword Congressional Reconstruction Act-March 2, 1867 5 military districts in the South disfranchised former Confederates Readmission ratify 14 th amendment state guarantee of full suffrage to blacks 15 th amendment Women Rights were not addressed at this time Elizabeth Cady Stanton/Susan B. Anthony not supportive of the 14 th/15 th amendment Scalawags-former Unionists/Whigs that were corrupt Carpetbaggers-northerners seeking power in the South politically or economically or both
The Ku Klux Klan, Tennessee, 1868 � This night-riding terrorist has even masked the identity of his horse.
The Ku Klux Klan “Invisible Empire of the South” Founded in Tennessee-1866 First taste of water since he had been killed at the Battle of Shiloh Fright then force Most took the hint and stayed away from the polls Congress passed Force Act of 1870/1871 South responded with disenfranchising blacks with literacy tests
Impeachment Drama The impeachment proceedings against President Andrew Johnson, among � the most severe constitutional crises in the Republic’s history, were high political theater, and tickets were in sharp demand.
Johnson Walks the Impeachment Plank Radicals accused Johnson of keeping a harem of “dissolute women” Congress passed the Tenure of Office Act in 1867 to require the president to secure consent of the Senate before an appointee could be removed Johnson removed Edwin Stanton, secretary of war in 1868
A Not-Guilty Verdict for Johnson Impeachment became biggest show of 1868 Missed the guilty verdict by 1 vote The next in line was not a better choice, Benjamin Wade, President pro tempore of the Senate Was not guilty of “high crimes and misdemeanors”
The Purchase of Alaska Russia wanted to sell off some of its empire Did not want to lose it to Britain in a war William Seward paid $7. 2 million Seward’s Folly The Tsars had been friendly to the North during the Civil War Later discoveries of natural gas and oil proved the importance of Alaska
Alaska and the Lower Forty-eight States (a size comparison)
The Heritage of Reconstruction The South resented Reconstruction for: 1. Upending the social structure 2. Destroying the racial system 3. Empowering former slaves 4. Federal intervention in local issues Difficult to develop the right policy
Is This a Republican Form of Government? by Thomas Nast, Harper’s Weekly, 1876 � The nation’s most prominent political cartoonist expressed his despair at the tragic way that Reconstruction had ended— with few real gains for the former slaves.
Wrap-Up 1. How would the South be rebuilt? 2. How would liberated blacks fare as free men and women? 3. How would the Southern states be reintegrated into the Union? 4. Who would direct the process of Reconstruction? 5. What should happen to the Confederate leaders?
Homework Continue Reading Chapter 22