Date 1142019 Unit PhysicsAstronomy Learning Goal To understand

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Date: 1/14/2019 Unit: Physics/Astronomy Learning Goal: To understand how the law of conservation of

Date: 1/14/2019 Unit: Physics/Astronomy Learning Goal: To understand how the law of conservation of matter supports the Big Bang Theory regarding formation of the universe and everything in it. IS 9– Ms. Kaplan

Going Back in Time (and Space): History of Astronomy • No matter how far

Going Back in Time (and Space): History of Astronomy • No matter how far back in human history you go, every culture, generation & religion has had a fascination with the universe & where or how it came to be. • Some ancient people around 5, 000 years ago set up large stones to mark the movement of the Sun & other stars (i. e. , Stonehenge in what we now call England).

Going Back in Time (and Space): History of Astronomy • Ancient natives of North

Going Back in Time (and Space): History of Astronomy • Ancient natives of North American lined up circles of stones with the Sun & stars to chart the rising Sun & the beginning of summers.

Going Back in Time (and Space): History of Astronomy • In southern Mexico, the

Going Back in Time (and Space): History of Astronomy • In southern Mexico, the Mayans built special buildings to watch the Moon & the planet Venus. • They had a calendar by 800 A. D. that was more accurate than the calendar used in Europe.

Going Back in Time (and Space): History of Astronomy • Ancient Egyptians depended on

Going Back in Time (and Space): History of Astronomy • Ancient Egyptians depended on the Nile River to flood their fields & make it possible to grow crops. • They became the first to use a calendar with a 365 -day year after their priests discovered that flooding returned about every 365 days.

Going Back in Time (and Space): History of Astronomy • Astrology • Search for

Going Back in Time (and Space): History of Astronomy • Astrology • Search for meaning in the sky • Began as soon as humans made attempts to measure, record & predict seasonal changes by referring to astronomical cycles • 25, 000 years ago, markings on bones & cave walls show lunar cycles (first step towards recording the Moon’s influence on tides & rivers, and towards organizing a communal calendar)

Going Back in Time (and Space): History of Astronomy • Astrology • Agriculture needs

Going Back in Time (and Space): History of Astronomy • Astrology • Agriculture needs met by increasing knowledge of constellations (appearances change with the seasons) • Constellation: patterns formed by prominent stars • Rising of particular star-groups heralded annual floods or seasonal activities

Going Back in Time (and Space): History of Astronomy • Astrology • By the

Going Back in Time (and Space): History of Astronomy • Astrology • By the 3 rd millennium BCE, widespread civilizations had developed sophisticated awareness of celestial cycles & are believed to have consciously oriented their temples to create alignment with the risings of stars

Going Back in Time (and Space): History of Astronomy • Astrology • Zodiac signs

Going Back in Time (and Space): History of Astronomy • Astrology • Zodiac signs are: Aries Taurus Virgo Libra Capricornus Gemini Cancer Scorpio Leo Sagittarius Aquarius • Zodiac Signs are classified into 4 elements: Fire Signs: Aries, Leo & Sagittarius Air Signs: Gemini, Libra & Aquarius Water Signs: Cancer, Scorpio & Pisces Earth Signs: Taurus, Virgo & Capricorn

Going Back in Time (and Space): History of Astronomy • Astrology & Mythology •

Going Back in Time (and Space): History of Astronomy • Astrology & Mythology • Myth – fictional legend or story • Most constellations have an ancient myth associated with it • Way people explained how or why stars were aligned the way they were • Example – Gemini: • According to Greek myth, Gemini, the Twins, are really only half-brothers. They share the same mother, Leda, but have different fathers. Castor's father was a King of Sparta, Tyndareus. The father of Pollux was none other than Zeus, or Jupiter. Zeus visited & seduced Leda on her wedding night in the guise of a swan. Thus, the twins were born. Since Pollux was the son of Zeus, he was immortal. But Pollux mourned over his brother's loss to such a point that he wanted to follow Castor into Hades. Zeus was so stricken by Pollux's love for his brother, he allowed them both to share the heavens side by side.

Geo = “Earth” Centr- = center Geocentric Model • Geocentric model – “Ptolemaic model”

Geo = “Earth” Centr- = center Geocentric Model • Geocentric model – “Ptolemaic model” • Named for Ancient Greek philosopher Claudius Ptolemy who lived ~90 to 168 A. D. • Developed to explain how the planets, the Sun & even stars orbit around the Earth • Has been described in early Greek manuscripts, as early as the 4 th century B. C. by Greek philosophers, Plato & Aristotle

Helio = “Sun” Centr- = center Heliocentric Model • Heliocentric model – “Coperincan model”

Helio = “Sun” Centr- = center Heliocentric Model • Heliocentric model – “Coperincan model” • First proposed by Nicolaus Copernicus, a Polish astronomer • Published the heliocentric system in his book: De revolutionibus orbium coelestium, "On the revolutions of the heavenly bodies, " in 1543 • Today’s model of our solar system

Date: 1/14/2019 Unit: Physics/Astronomy Learning Goal: To understand how the law of conservation of

Date: 1/14/2019 Unit: Physics/Astronomy Learning Goal: To understand how the law of conservation of matter supports the Big Bang Theory regarding formation of the universe and everything in it. IS 9– Ms. Kaplan

Date: 1/14/2019 Unit: Physics/Astronomy Learning Goal: To understand how the law of conservation of

Date: 1/14/2019 Unit: Physics/Astronomy Learning Goal: To understand how the law of conservation of matter supports the Big Bang Theory regarding formation of the universe and everything in it. IS 9– Ms. Kaplan