Cycles and Climate Chapter 10 Cycles and Climate

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Cycles and Climate Chapter 10 Cycles and Climate

Cycles and Climate Chapter 10 Cycles and Climate

Water in the Air �Water surrounds you all the time. �Water is not always

Water in the Air �Water surrounds you all the time. �Water is not always a liquid or a solid, sometimes it’s a gas (water vapor). �Water vapor makes up a small percentage of the gases in the air. �Particles of water vapor, like particles of other gases are constantly moving

Partner read pg 369 �Complete questions 1 and 2

Partner read pg 369 �Complete questions 1 and 2

The water cycle �Water is always moving on, through, and above Earth as it

The water cycle �Water is always moving on, through, and above Earth as it changes from one form to another in the water cycle. �The water cycle is the repeated movement of water through the environment in different forms.

Steps of the Water Cycle �The steps of the water cycle include evaporation, condensation,

Steps of the Water Cycle �The steps of the water cycle include evaporation, condensation, precipitation, and runoff. �These steps can be affected by temperature, pressure, wind, and the elevation of the land.

Evaporation �Evaporation is the changing of a liquid to a gas (water to water

Evaporation �Evaporation is the changing of a liquid to a gas (water to water vapor). �Water evaporates from the oceans or other water bodies into the atmosphere.

Condensation �In condensation a gas turns into a liquid (water vapor to liquid water).

Condensation �In condensation a gas turns into a liquid (water vapor to liquid water). �Clouds form when water vapor condenses into water droplets and ice crystals.

Precipitation �In precipitation the water falls from clouds rain, snow, sleet, or hail. �The

Precipitation �In precipitation the water falls from clouds rain, snow, sleet, or hail. �The water cycle can follow different paths. as

Energy in the water cycle �The sun has a major effect on the water

Energy in the water cycle �The sun has a major effect on the water cycle. �The energy of the sun is what drives the water cycle.

Highlight it!!! �Textbook page 369

Highlight it!!! �Textbook page 369

Lesson 2 �Gases in the atmosphere make life possible. �Most of Earth’s atmosphere is

Lesson 2 �Gases in the atmosphere make life possible. �Most of Earth’s atmosphere is nitrogen gas. �If resources that we need were not cycled, they would soon run out. Earth’s natural cycles allow living things to use the same materials over and over.

Nitrogen cycle �Nitrogen is all around us. �The Nitrogen cycle is the repeated movement

Nitrogen cycle �Nitrogen is all around us. �The Nitrogen cycle is the repeated movement of nitrogen through the environment in different forms. �Cells in plants and animals need nitrogen to do their work.

Nitrogen cycle �Lightning can cause nitrogen to combine with other gases in air and

Nitrogen cycle �Lightning can cause nitrogen to combine with other gases in air and make nitrogen compounds. �Some kinds of bacteria make nitrogen compounds and put them into the soil. �Some plants in tropical rain forests contain bacteria that make nitrogen compounds.

Nitrogen cycle �Herbivores get the nitrogen they need when they eat plants. Animals that

Nitrogen cycle �Herbivores get the nitrogen they need when they eat plants. Animals that are carnivores get it when they eat the herbivores. �Nitrogen returns to the soil or air when animals and plants die �Decomposers break down the remains or dead organisms and waste products.

Carbon and oxygen cycles �Oxygen is the second most abundant gas in the atmosphere.

Carbon and oxygen cycles �Oxygen is the second most abundant gas in the atmosphere. �Carbon dioxide and oxygen gases are always being made and used in the world’s ecosystems. �The repeated movement of carbon through the environment in different forms is called the carbon cycle.

Human effect on carbon and oxygen cycles �People play a role in Earth’s cycles

Human effect on carbon and oxygen cycles �People play a role in Earth’s cycles �Combustion is the burning of materials. �Carbon dioxide forms as a result of combustion.

Lesson 3 �This lesson contains information about how to read a weather map!!

Lesson 3 �This lesson contains information about how to read a weather map!!

Weather Forecast �A weather forecaster is a person who predicts and reports on weather.

Weather Forecast �A weather forecaster is a person who predicts and reports on weather. �Weather forecasters use observations of past and present weather conditions

Weather Forecast �Weather forecasters observe everything about the weather to make inferences about how

Weather Forecast �Weather forecasters observe everything about the weather to make inferences about how air, land, and the water cycle make weather systems. �Predictions are sometimes made by assuming that future weather will act the way that similar weather has in the past.

Weather Maps �Weather maps are used to show the predictions of the forecaster. �Most

Weather Maps �Weather maps are used to show the predictions of the forecaster. �Most weather maps display air temp, air pressure, and precipitation. �The red and blue lines shown on a weather map shows the fronts. �A front is a boundary between two large masses of air with different temps, amounts of water vapor, and pressures.

Satellite and Radar Maps �Weather forecasters use many kinds of maps to show weather

Satellite and Radar Maps �Weather forecasters use many kinds of maps to show weather conditions and make predictions. �Satellite images can show clouds. �Computers also make maps that are used to forecast weather. �A computer model uses data from many weather stations to predict changes in weather.

Satellite and Radar Maps �Advances in technology have improved the accuracy of short-term forecasts.

Satellite and Radar Maps �Advances in technology have improved the accuracy of short-term forecasts. �Because slight changes in the weather can cause big changes in the weather it can cause big changes later, long-term forecasts are less accurate. �Doppler radar detects precipitation and how wind affects its movement. �A computer analyzes and maps this data so quickly that a real-time image is formed.

Lesson 4 �Pg. 389

Lesson 4 �Pg. 389

Average Weather � The words weather and climate do not have the same definitions.

Average Weather � The words weather and climate do not have the same definitions. � Weather is made up of all the conditions in one place at a single moment. Weather changes very often. � Climate describes the weather conditions over along time, at least thirty years. � Climate includes average amounts of temp changes, and how much temp changes during the years � Climates do not change as much as the daily weather does.

Factors that affect climate �Different areas of the world have different climates. Some factors

Factors that affect climate �Different areas of the world have different climates. Some factors that affect climate include latitude, elevation, and closeness to large bodies of water. �Latitude is a measure of how far a place is from the equator. �Latitude is measured in degrees, starting at 0˚. �See page 390 for highlights.

Elevation �Mt ranges may have different climates than areas around them. �Higher land is

Elevation �Mt ranges may have different climates than areas around them. �Higher land is cooler because temperature decreases with increased elevation in the lower part of the atmosphere. �Elevation is the height above sea level. This is what causes some mt tops to have snow on them all year long. �Areas on opposite sides of a mt range can have very different climates.

Bodies of water �Large bodies of water can affect a climate by slowing the

Bodies of water �Large bodies of water can affect a climate by slowing the rise and fall of the air temperature. �The temperature of the air near water does not change as quickly as air inland.