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Cultures of East Asia Section 1
Cultures of East Asia Chinese Empires Preview • Starting Points Map: East Asia • Main Idea / Reading Focus • Sui and Tang Dynasties • Faces of History: Wu Zhao • The Song Dynasty • Map: Tang and Song Dynasties Section 1
Cultures of East Asia Chinese Empires Preview, continued • Cultural Achievements • Quick Facts: Innovations • Prosperity and Society Section 1
Cultures of East Asia Click the icon to play Listen to History audio. Click the icon below to connect to the Interactive Maps. Section 1
Cultures of East Asia Section 1 Chinese Empires Main Idea The Sui dynasty reunified China, after which the Tang and Song dynasties produced an age of prosperity and achievement. Reading Focus • How did the Sui and Tang dynasties reunify China? • How did the Song dynasty strengthen China? • What were some Tang and Song cultural achievements? • How was this period a time of prosperity and social change?
Section 1 Cultures of East Asia Sui and Tang Dynasties The Han dynasty ruled China from 206 BC to AD 220—more than 400 years. After the dynasty collapsed, military leaders split China into rival kingdoms. These events began a period of disorder and warfare that historians call the Period of Disunion. The Period of Disunion Civilization Thrived • Nomads invaded northern China, formed own kingdoms • Despite these events, Chinese civilization thrived, developed • Many northern Chinese fled south to region of Yangzi River • Nomadic invaders in north adopted aspects of Chinese civilization • A number of southern dynasties rose, fell • Northern Chinese immigrants’ culture blended with local cultures in south; arts, philosophy flowered The Period of Disunion lasted more than 350 years, ending when a northern ruler named Wendi reunified China, founding the Sui dynasty.
Section 1 Cultures of East Asia The Sui Dynasty Centralized Government • Wendi worked to build centralized government Grand Canal • Greatest accomplishment of Sui dynasty, completed during reign of Yangdi, Wendi’s son • Restored order, created new legal code, reformed bureaucracy • 1, 000 mile waterway linked northern, southern China • Created policies to provide adult males with land, ensure availability of grain • Yangdi forced millions of peasants to work on canal; led to discontent, rebellion • 618, Yangdi assassinated, Sui dynasty ended
Cultures of East Asia Section 1 The Tang Dynasty Period of Brilliance • Tang dynasty ruled 618 to 907; Chinese influence spread • China experienced period of brilliance, prosperity, cultural achievement • Government, other institutions served as models across East Asia Built on Sui Foundations • Established capital at Chang’an, Sui capital • Second capital located at Luoyang • Government control remained centralized, based on bureaucracy of officials Civil Service • To obtain talented officials, Tang expanded civil service examination system • People had to pass written exams to work for government • Created flexible law code; model for law codes in Korea, Japan
Cultures of East Asia Section 1 Foreign Affairs • Tang expanded China, Chinese influence • Regained western lands in Central Asia, gained influence over Korea • Contact with Japan increased; Japanese scholars came to China to study • Expansion, increased contact with others grew foreign trade Expansion • Much of expansion occurred during reign of Taizong, 626 to 649 • Taizong relied on talented ministers to help govern • In addition to military conquests, Taizong had schools built to prepare students for civil service exams • After his death, one of his sons became emperor
Section 1 Cultures of East Asia Wu Zhao New emperor was weak, sickly • Emperor’s wife, Wu Zhao gained power • Following death of husband – Wu Zhao ruled through her sons – Eventually became emperor herself—the only woman to do so in Chinese history • Wu Zhao overthrown, 705 – Dynasty reached height under Xuanzong – During reign, 712 to 756, empire prospered
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Cultures of East Asia Section 1 The Age of Buddhism From India • Buddhism first came to China from India during Han times • During Period of Disunion many Chinese turned to Buddhism • Taught people could escape suffering, appealed to people in turmoil State Religion • Under Tang rule, Buddhism became state religion • Buddhist temples appeared across land, missionaries spread Buddhism • 400 to 845 in China, Age of Buddhism; ended when lost official favor Tang Decline • 750 s, decline began, government weak, nomadic invasions, rebellions • Military defeats lost Tang lands in Central Asia and the north • 907, emperor killed, Tang dynasty ended
Section 1 Cultures of East Asia Summarize How did the Sui and Tang dynasties unite and expand China? Answer(s): built centralized government; reformed laws and policies; built Grand Canal; Tang regained land in Central Asia and gained influence over neighboring states; increased contact with other peoples
Section 1 Cultures of East Asia The Song Dynasty After Tang Dynasty • China split apart after Tang dynasty • Did not reunify until 960 with Song dynasty • Song ruled for about 300 years, created achievement, prosperity • Under Song, Chinese civilization became most advanced in world Government and Civil Service • Song established capital at Kaifeng, restored centralized government control • Enlarged government bureaucracy, reformed civil service examination system • Neo-Confucianism gained favor, emphasizing Confucian ethics, spiritual matters
Cultures of East Asia Section 1 Civil Service Exams • Extremely difficult to pass; those who did became scholar-officials • Scholar-officials received good salary, were respected • Civil service exams became more open to ordinary people • Exams became pathway to gaining wealth, status Southern Song • Song rulers never regained northern, western lands lost by Tang • Tried to buy peace with threatening nomads by sending lavish gifts • 1120 s, nomadic people, Jurchen, conquered northern China, founded Jin empire • Song continued in south as Southern Song dynasty 150 more years
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Section 1 Cultures of East Asia Compare How did the Song strengthen China’s government? Answer(s): established capital at Kaifeng and restored centralized government control, enlarged bureaucracy, reformed civil service exam
Section 1 Cultures of East Asia Cultural Achievements The Tang and Song dynasties were periods of great cultural achievement. Art and literature flourished, and many inventions and advances occurred in science and technology. Literature and Art Painting • Tang period produced some of China’s greatest poets • Reached new heights • Exquisite objects made from clay • Wu Daozi, murals celebrating Buddhism, nature • Tang: pottery figurines, often to go in tombs • Landscapes of great beauty • Song: excelled at making porcelain • Some used only black ink • Admired, sought after worldwide • Du Fu, Li Bo, two most famous • Poems of Confucian ideals, joys of life Artisans
Cultures of East Asia Section 1 Inventions and Innovations Architecture Inventions • Indian Buddhist temples influenced design of Chinese pagoda • During Tang, Song periods, China became a world leader in technology, science • Featured roofs at each floor curving upwards at corners • Gunpowder major invention, used in fireworks, weapons Magnetic Compass Printing • Major Tang technical advance • Paper, ink invented earlier • Uses Earth’s magnetic field to show direction • Tang period, developed woodblock printing • Revolutionized sea travel, contributed to world exploration • Text carved into wood, coated with ink, pressed on paper
Cultures of East Asia Section 1 Moveable Type • Song dynasty invented another type of printing, moveable type • Uses blocks on which letters, characters carved • Blocks rearranged, reused to print many things • Faster than woodblock, spread to Europe, revolutionized printing Paper Money • Another Song invention • Had used bulky metal disks placed on strings • As economy grew, lighter, more useful form of currency developed • Paper money light, easy to use, quickly spread in use in China
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Cultures of East Asia Section 1 Identify Cause and Effect How did Chinese innovations affect world history? Answer(s): Gunpowder dramatically affected how wars were fought; the compass allowed for world navigation; printing innovations led to increased sharing of ideas.
Section 1 Cultures of East Asia Prosperity and Society In addition to cultural achievements, the Tang and Song periods were a time of growth and prosperity. Agriculture • Chinese agriculture became more productive – New irrigation techniques – New variety of rice – Production of cotton, tea increased • Increased food production contributed to population growth • Tang population 60 million, Song population 100 million Trade • Improvements in roads, canals increased trade within China • Foreign trade expanded, mostly over land routes like Silk Roads • Late Tang: advances in sailing, shipbuilding helped sea trade • Song: merchants became important in society; money, banking began to develop
Section 1 Cultures of East Asia City Life • • As farming, trade grew so did China’s cities China had largest cities in world at the time Tang capital, Chang’an, population more than 1 million, many cultures Song dynasty, several cities had million or more; sea trade caused port cities to boom • Despite urban growth, most Chinese still lived, farmed in countryside Society • Power of aristocratic families declined during period • New class developed, gentry • Included scholar-officials, leading landowners • Most still peasants, farmers • Paid most of taxes, little schooling Women • Status of women declined, most visibly in upper classes • Desire for small, dainty feet led to custom of footbinding • Painful process to keep feet from growing, deformed feet over time • Symbol of husband’s authority
Cultures of East Asia Section 1 Draw Conclusions How did footbinding reflect changes in attitudes toward women in China? Answer(s): became symbol of husband's authority over wife; women's status declined
Cultures of East Asia The Mongol Empire Preview • Main Idea / Reading Focus • The Mongols • The Yuan Dynasty • Map: Mongol Empire • End of the Yuan Dynasty • Faces of History: Kublai Khan Section 1
Cultures of East Asia Section 1 The Mongol Empire Main Idea The Mongols built a vast empire across much of Asia, founded the Yuan dynasty in China, and opened China and the region to greater foreign contacts and trade. Reading Focus • How did the nomadic Mongols build an empire? • How did China change under the Mongol rulers of the Yuan dynasty? • Why did the Yuan dynasty decline and finally end?
Section 1 Cultures of East Asia The Mongols In the 1200 s a nomadic people called the Mongols burst forth from Central Asia to create the largest land empire in history. Nomads from the Steppe Fierce Warriors • Vast steppes, grasslands, stretch across north-central Eurasia, home to nomadic peoples • Like Huns, Turks, the Mongols emerged as powerful nomadic people on Central Asian steppes • Steppes too dry for farming • Herded sheep, goats • Nomads relied on herds of domesticated animals • Skilled with horses • Often traded; but also swept down on settlements, took what they wanted • Accustomed to living in harsh environment, competing for scarce resources • Tough people, fierce warriors
Cultures of East Asia Section 1 The Universal Ruler Separate Clans • Mongols divided into separate clans, each led by a khan, chief • Khans rose to power through military skills, ability to lead • 1100 s, Temujin, powerful khan, began to conquer rivals, unite Mongol clans Genghis Khan • 1206, Temujin completed task, took name Genghis Khan, “Universal Ruler” • Set out to build empire, organized Mongols into powerful military machine • Strict discipline, demanded loyalty, rewarded those who pleased him Campaign of Conquest • Mongol forces began bloody campaign of conquest; highly mobile armies • Employed brutality, psychological warfare; burned towns, killed inhabitants • Sent agents ahead to instill fear; soon people surrendered without a fight
Section 1 Cultures of East Asia The Mongol Empire • Genghis Kahn led Mongols in conquering much of Asia • Mongols learned art of siege warfare, gunpowder in fights against Chinese, Turks • At Genghis Kahn’s death, 1227, Mongols controlled much of northern China, Central Asia • Sons, grandsons took up challenge of world conquest Khanates • Genghis Kahn’s empire divided into four khanates, heir ruled each region; new Great Khan ruled over whole empire • Grandsons resumed efforts to complete conquests of China, Korea, Persia • 1236, Golden Horde, or Tartars, began conquering Russia, Poland, Hungary
Cultures of East Asia Section 1 The Golden Horde stood ready to invade western Europe • Grandson Batu learned of Great Kahn’s death, suddenly turned back • India, Western Europe escaped Mongol wrath • Most of Eurasia devastated • Millions had died, entire cities annihilated
Cultures of East Asia Section 1 The Mongol Peace • Mongols built empire with brutality, ruled peacefully • Tolerated local beliefs, ways of life, allowed local rulers to stay in power as long as they paid tribute to Mongols • Some Mongols adopted aspects of more civilized cultures; Mongols in Central Asia, Persia, adopted Islam Stability in Asia • Mongol Empire established peace, stability across Asia • Some historians call period Pax Mongolica, “Mongol Peace” • Guarded trade routes across Asia, allowed trade to increase; people, goods, ideas flowed across Asia • Some believe Black Plague spread from Asia to Europe during period
Cultures of East Asia Section 1 Identify Supporting Details How were the Mongols able to build a vast empire across much of Eurasia? Answer(s): army was skilled and well organized, rules promoted loyalty and obedience; tactics involved brutality and psychological warfare; built fear in those they conquered
Section 1 Cultures of East Asia The Yuan Dynasty Great Kahn • 1260, Kublai Khan became Great Kahn of Mongol Empire • Determined to complete conquest of China begun in 1235 Kublai Kahn Rules China • As emperor, Kublai Khan tried to gain loyalty of Chinese subjects • Adopted Chinese practices, gave dynasty Chinese name Southern Song • Mongols ruled northern China • Southern Song dynasty ruled in south, fiercely resisted Mongols • 1279, Song defeated; Kublai Khan created Yuan dynasty New Capital • Kublai Khan moved capital to near what is now Beijing • Built Chinese-style walled city, lavish palace, adopted Chinese court ceremonies
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Cultures of East Asia Section 1 Kublai Khan Rules China Mongol Identity • Kublai Khan tried to rule as Chinese emperor • But took care to see Mongols not absorbed into Chinese culture • Mongols lived apart from Chinese, had little in common Separation • Individual friendships between Mongols, Chinese discouraged • Mongols forbidden to marry Chinese • Different laws, taxes for Chinese; could not own weapons, serve in military Limited Power • Kublai Khan distrusted Chinese, limited power • Chinese officials served at local level, could not hold high government posts • Mongols invited foreigners to hold government office
Section 1 Cultures of East Asia Taxes to Trade • Mongols burdened Chinese with heavy taxes • Large part of taxes supported public-works projects • Chinese laborers built new roads, extended Grand Canal • Improvements made shipping rice, other goods from southern China to northern China easier, more reliable Peace • Mongols posted soldiers throughout China to keep peace • Feared rebellions, particularly in south where many Chinese remained loyal to Song dynasty Foreign Trade • Foreign trade increased • Pax Mongolica made land travel safer for merchants • Sea trade improved; foreign merchants welcomed to China’s ports
Section 1 Cultures of East Asia Europeans to China As a result of Kublai Khan’s foreign trade policies, many merchants, travelers and missionaries came to China. Most were from Southwest Asia and India. However a few came from Europe as well. One of the most famous of these Europeans was Marco Polo in China • Marco Polo, Italian trader visited Yuan court • Kublai Kahn sent Polo on several missions; traveled in, around China for 17 years • 1295, Polo imprisoned in Venice, recounted tales to fellow prisoner Accounts of China • Polo’s tales published as book • Book fascinated many Europeans • Polo described grand palace, with walls covered in silver, gold • Noted efficiency of postal system, use of paper money • Awed by size, splendor of cities Some scholars question whether Polo reached China or just related stories he heard in his travels, but his tales increased interest in China.
Section 1 Cultures of East Asia Summarize How did Mongol rule in the Yuan dynasty affect life for the Chinese? Answer(s): made the Chinese subordinate to the Mongols; limited their power
Section 1 Cultures of East Asia End of the Yuan Dynasty The Yuan dynasty weakened during the last part of Kublai Khan’s reign. One cause was a number of military defeats. All of his invasions into Southeast Asia failed, and Mongol armies suffered huge losses. Japan • Kublai Khan had set sights on conquering Japan • Tried to invade Japan twice • Disastrous results each time Attacks • First attempt: 900 ships attacked Japan, storm destroyed fleet • Second attempt: Khan sent larger fleet, severe storm again wiped out fleet Kamikaze • After two fleets destroyed by storms, Mongols never attempted Japanese invasion • Japanese called storms that saved them kamikaze, “divine wind”
Cultures of East Asia Section 1 Military and Monetary Losses Weaknesses • Huge military losses in Japan weakened Mongol forces that controlled, protected China • Large amounts spent on publicworks projects weakened economy • Weaknesses, Chinese resentment of Mongols, left empire ripe for rebellion End of Dynasty • 1294, Kublai Khan died, power struggles erupted; Khan’s successors lacked talent for leadership • Floods, rising taxes further increased discontent • 1300 s, Chinese rebelled, defeated Mongols • Mongols fled to Manchuria, ending foreign rule in China
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Cultures of East Asia Section 1 Identify Cause and Effect What factors led to the end of the Yuan dynasty? Answer(s): military defeats and failed invasions; lack of good leadership; power struggles; Chinese discontent
Cultures of East Asia Japan and Korea Preview • Main Idea / Reading Focus • Early Japanese Civilization • Map: Japan • Foreign Influences on Japan • The Heian Period • Korea • Map: Korea Section 1
Cultures of East Asia Section 1 Japan and Korea Main Idea Geography and cultural borrowing from China shaped the early civilizations of Japan and Korea. Reading Focus • What factors shaped early Japanese civilization? • How did foreign influences shape life in early Japan? • What characteristics defined Japan’s Heian period? • What were the main events in the history of early Korea?
Cultures of East Asia Section 1 Early Japanese Civilization The Japanese call their country Nippon, meaning “Land of the Rising Sun. ” Japan sits on the eastern edge of the Pacific Ocean, at what feels like the origin of the sunrise in the east. This location and the geography of Japan has shaped life there since the earliest times. The Land • The nation of Japan consists of some 3, 000 islands • Largest four islands form an archipelago, large island chain • Chain extends more than 1, 500 miles and lies on Ring of Fire— zone of volcanoes, earthquakes The Elements • Japan home to hundreds of volcanoes, many active • Experiences frequent earthquakes • Subject to tsunamis, huge waves from underwater earthquakes • Typhoons also strike late in summer, early autumn Only a small part of Japan is suitable for farming. Most Japanese have always lived in the river valleys and coastal plains.
Cultures of East Asia Section 1 The Sea • Nearness of sea has also shaped development of Japan • People never far from sea, even on larger islands • Early Japanese turned to sea for food, transportation • Sea also protected, isolated Japan during much of history Separated from Neighbors • Japan separated from Korea by 100 miles of water, from China by 400 miles of water—large enough distances to prevent invasions • Only successful invasion of Japan occurred in World War II • Early Japanese developed own culture in relative isolation • China, Korea close enough to influence Japan’s culture later in time
Section 1 Cultures of East Asia Early Japan Migration • Scientists think first people to settle in Japan migrated from Asian mainland • Early people hunters, gatherers; developed societies with distinct cultures • Oldest known Japanese culture, Ainu • Ainu’s origin unknown, did not resemble other East Asians • More people migrated to Japan, Ainu driven onto northernmost island • Culture almost disappeared Clans • People on islands south of Ainu became the Japanese • Clans developed, came to rule many villages • Each clan worshipped nature spirits, kami, believed to be their ancestors
Cultures of East Asia Section 1 Shinto Religion Religious beliefs developed into Shinto religion • Shinto, “way of the kami” • Shinto religion: – Everything in nature has a kami – No sacred text, formal structure • Shrines: – Built to kami, ceremonies performed there – Located in natural settings; red gateway, torii, marks entrance
Section 1 Cultures of East Asia The Yamato Clan Powerful Clan Emperors • Amaterasu, the sun goddess, was one of most revered kami • In time Japan’s emperors claimed to be living gods • First Japanese emperor said to be grandson of sun goddess • Other clans eventually gained power over the Yamato • Emperor member of Yamato clan, which lived in rich farming region on island of Honshu • Did not remove Yamato emperor, but controlled him • Did not control all Japan, but Yamato chiefs began to call themselves emperors of Japan • As result, emperor often had no real authority, served as figurehead; this political system continued until 1900 s
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Cultures of East Asia Section 1 Identify Supporting Details What geographic factors have influenced Japan’s history and culture? Answer(s): geologically active region; steep mountains, thick forests, limited but fertile farmland, islands surrounded by the sea
Cultures of East Asia Section 1 Foreign Influences on Japan By the mid-500 s, Japan had increased contact with its neighbors, Korea and China. Their cultures began to influence Japan. Korean Influences Chinese Influences • Korean traders, travelers brought foreign influences; most originated in China • Prince Shotoku helped spread Buddhism in Japan • Korean scribes introduced Chinese writing to Japan • Korean monks introduced religion of Buddhism • Buddhism influenced Japanese art, architecture • Served as regent to Japanese empress, his aunt • Shotoku admired China, sent scholars to learn from Chinese • Knowledge from missions to Tang dynasty changed Japan in many ways
Section 1 Cultures of East Asia Changes in Japan Tang Influences • Chinese fashions, foods, tea became popular in Japan • Tang styles of art, music, dance, gardening also popular Government Influences • Japanese adopted Tang ideas, including stronger central government, bureaucracy • Adopted law code similar to China’s, not civil service system Confucian Influences • Japanese adopted many Confucian ideas about family • Wives should obey husbands • Children should obey parents End of Influences • 800 s, Tang dynasty declined, Japanese stopped sending missions to China • Transformed what they had learned, to create own culture, society
Cultures of East Asia Section 1 Find the Main Idea How did Chinese influences affect Japan during this period? Answer(s): gave Japan a written language; Buddhism spread from China to Japan; Chinese fashion and foods became popular; Japanese adopted some Chinese ideas about government
Section 1 Cultures of East Asia The Heian Period In 794 Japan’s emperor moved the capital to Heian, now called Kyoto. Many nobles moved to Heian, where they developed an elegant and stylish court society. At the Heian court, Japanese culture flowered. Life in the Heian Period • Heian nobles lived in beautiful palaces, enjoyed lives of privilege • So removed from common people, many called selves “dwellers among the clouds” Etiquette Women • Rules governed all aspects of court behavior, dress • Elaborate silk gowns for women • Proper way to write note, an art form • Everyone expected to write poetry • Women enjoyed writing, reading fictional prose • Lady Murasaki Shikibu greatest writer; The Tale of Genji, world’s first full-length novel, describes court life
Section 1 Cultures of East Asia The Fujiwaras Fujiwara family controlled Japan for most of Heian period • Many Fujiwaras served as regent • Fujiwaras often married daughters to heirs of throne • Rich landowners with private armies eventually challenged Fujiwaras, Japan’s central government
Section 1 Cultures of East Asia Summarize Why was the Heian period a golden age of culture in Japan? Answer(s): A court culture grew; writing and art flourished.
Section 1 Cultures of East Asia Korean Peninsula • Juts from East Asian mainland, China to southwest, Japan to east • Location made Korea bridge for passage of people, culture, ideas • Also left region open to invasion Geography • Much of peninsula covered by rugged mountains, limits land for agriculture • Mountain ranges run north and south along east coast • Main population centers in west; land flattens to plains Early Korea • First Koreans nomadic peoples from northeastern Asia; formed clans • Developed own culture; but influenced by China’s Han dynasty, 108 BC • Adopted Confucianism, Chinese writing, political, agricultural methods
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Section 1 Cultures of East Asia Silla • • • After China’s Han dynasty, three rival kingdoms controlled Korea 600 s, rulers of one kingdom, Silla, allied with China, conquered rest Silla then turned on Chinese; ruled all Korea by 670 Agreed to pay tribute to China to ensure harmony, good will Embraced many aspects of Chinese civilization, promoted Buddhism, created central government, bureaucracy based on Tang model The Koryo Dynasty • 935, rebels defeated Silla Kingdom, founded Koryo dynasty, which lasted until 1392 • Continued to adopt Chinese ideas, worked for distinct Korean features • Civil service exam like China’s but only nobles could take test Society, Culture • Society divided between powerful nobility and the rest of the people • Culture thrived, artisans created pottery covered with celadon glaze • Improved on Chinese woodblock printing, created moveable type • Printed Buddhist texts
Cultures of East Asia Section 1 Mongol Occupation 1200 s, Mongols of Yuan China invaded, occupied Korea • Forced Koryo’s rulers to pay immense tributes, enslaved many Koreans – Took artisans to China – Forced men to serve in Yuan military • 1300 s, Yuan dynasty weakened – Koreans rebelled against Yuan – 1392, Korean general founded new dynasty
Section 1 Cultures of East Asia Sequence What were the major events and periods in early Korean history? Answer(s): period of Han dynasty influence; period when Silla kingdom allied with Chinese; Koryo dynasty
Cultures of East Asia Section 1 Civilizations of Southeast Asia Preview • Main Idea / Reading Focus • Influences on Southeast Asia • Map: Southeast Asian Kingdoms • Early Kingdoms and Empires • Visual Study Guide / Quick Facts • Video: The Impact of Chinese Culture on Japan
Cultures of East Asia Section 1 Civilizations of Southeast Asia Main Idea The early civilizations of Southeast Asia were influenced by geography and the cultures of India and China. Reading Focus • What factors influenced early civilizations in the region of Southeast Asia? • What early kingdoms and empires developed in Southeast Asia?
Cultures of East Asia Section 1 Influences on Southeast Asia India and China shaped the development of civilization in the region of Southeast Asia. Geography and trade also played important roles. Two Parts of Southeast Asia • Southeast Asia divided in two parts—mainland Southeast Asia, and island Southeast Asia • Mainland—modern nations of Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, part of Malaysia • Island—Sumatra, Borneo, Java, rest of Malaysia, Brunei, East Timor, Indonesia, Philippines, Singapore Geography • Several rivers flow south on mainland • Valleys, deltas of rivers supported farming, home to early civilizations • Separating rivers, rugged mountains, limited contact among people • Islands surrounded by seas, straits; provided sources of food, travel, served as trade routes
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Cultures of East Asia Section 1 Trade • Southeast Asia waterways, main trade routes between India, China • Two most important: Malacca Strait between Malay Peninsula, Sumatra; Sunda Strait, between Sumatra, Java • Control of these, other important trade routes, brought wealth, power Winds • Monsoons, seasonal winds, shaped trade • Winds blow northeast in summer, southwest in winter • Ships relied on monsoons to sail from place to place, often had to wait in port until winds shifted to resume voyage • Many Southeast Asian port cities became important economic centers
Cultures of East Asia Section 1 Sea Trade in Southeast Asia • By AD 100 s, Indian merchants had begun prosperous sea trade with Southeast Asia • Overland trade routes through Central Asia more dangerous after fall of Han dynasty, 220 • Seaborne trade between China, India increased • Traders passed through Southeast Asia; exchanged goods for local products
Section 1 Cultures of East Asia India and China Traders and Missionaries • Chinese, Indian traders influenced Southeast Asia • Indian influence spread through trade, missionaries • Indian missionaries introduced Hinduism, Buddhism; many kingdoms adopted the religions, built temples in Indian style • Eventually Indians brought Islam; remains strong today Other Influences • Indian ideas on writing, science, government, art spread to Southeast Asia • Ancient Indian language, Sanskrit, came into wide use • Chinese influences spread by conquest, trade, migration • China controlled northern Vietnam at different times, strongly influenced that region
Cultures of East Asia Section 1 Identify Cause and Effect How did trade influence Southeast Asia? Answer(s): Ports became the economic centers of Southeast Asia; Indian and Chinese influence spread to Southeast Asia through trade
Cultures of East Asia Section 1 Early Kingdoms and Empires Small but Powerful • Several early kingdoms, empires arose in Southeast Asia • Most small, a few quite powerful • Blended influences from India, China to create own unique societies, cultures The Pagan Kingdom • AD 800 s, Burmans established kingdom of Pagan, in what is now Myanmar • Located in fertile Irrawaddy River valley, ideal for rice farming • First king, Anawrahta, ruled 1044 to 1077, conquered surrounding areas Conquests • 1057, Anawrahta united much of what is now Myanmar under his rule • Conquests provided Pagan with access to trading ports • Anawrahta’s kingdom prospered
Cultures of East Asia Section 1 The Pagan Kingdom • Anawrahta, successors supported Theravada Buddhism, built thousands of Buddhist temples • Pagan became center of Buddhist learning • 1287, Kublai Khan’s Mongols demanded tribute from Pagan; king refused and attacked; was crushed • One of king’s own sons killed him, then agreed to pay tribute to the Mongols • Pagan survived, but lost power • Today Myanmar people consider Pagan classical age of history, culture
Section 1 Cultures of East Asia The Khmer Empire • Powerful Khmer empire arose southeast of Pagan, in what is now Cambodia • Early 800 s, Khmer people began to conquer kingdoms around them, build great empire • Empire reached height between 850 and 1250, controlled much of Southeast Asian mainland • Expensive building projects, invaders contributed to empire’s decline Indian Influence Rich from Rice • Khmer Empire reflected strong Indian influence • Built vast temple complexes; Angkor Wat ruins still stand • Adopted Hindu, Buddhist beliefs, ruled as gods • Empire grew prosperous from rice farming • Empire’s capital city, Angkor, symbolized shape of Hindu universe, temple at its center • Built irrigation system covering 12. 5 million acres, grew several crops per year
Section 1 Cultures of East Asia Trading Kingdoms Sailendra • Several developed on islands of Southeast Asia • Kingdom of Sailendra on Java flourished, 750 to 850 • Relied on agriculture, trade • Adopted Mahayana Buddhism, known for impressive Buddhist art, architecture • Borobudur monument with terraced levels most famous Srivijaya Control Reduced • Wealthy empire on Sumatra, flourished 600 s to 1200 s • Gained wealth from control of overseas trade through Malacca, Sunda straits • Also Buddhist learning center • 1025, empire attacked by Indian kingdom • Empire survived, but weakened • Control of trade reduced • Islam spread; Muslims came to dominate trade in region
Section 1 Cultures of East Asia Vietnam While most of Southeast Asia was strongly influenced by India, Vietnam was strongly influenced by China. In 111 BC the Han dynasty of China conquered the kingdom of Nam Viet, in what is now northern Vietnam. They ruled the region off and on for the next 1, 000 years. Chinese Rule • Chinese forced Vietnamese to adopt Chinese language, clothing, hairstyles • Confucianism, Daoism influenced Vietnamese society • Adopted Chinese government features, including bureaucracy Traditional Customs • Vietnam embraced Buddhism, but still maintained traditional customs • Continued to worship nature spirits alongside other belief systems • Chinese rule shaped life in early Vietnam, but people determined to preserve own culture, identity In hopes of regaining their independence, the Vietnamese sometimes rebelled when Chinese rule grew weak.
Cultures of East Asia Section 1 Rebellion in Vietnam Rebellion • AD 39, one of most famous Vietnamese rebellions took place • Two sisters, Trung Trac, Trung Nhi raised army, briefly drove Chinese out • Chinese soon regained control; sisters remain heroes in Vietnam today Independence • Early 900 s, fall of China’s Tang dynasty provided Vietnamese another chance at independence; this time successful • 939, established independent kingdom in what is now northern Vietnam Dai Viet • Rulers of Dai Viet sent tribute to China, but remained independent • Chinese failed in attempts to reconquer Vietnam; 1285, Mongols invaded; Dai Viet prince Tran Quoc Toan defeated them, became a hero
Section 1 Cultures of East Asia Contrast How did the development of early Vietnam differ from the development of kingdoms and empires in the rest of Southeast Asia? Answer(s): was ruled by China; influenced by China rather than India
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Section 1 Cultures of East Asia Video The Impact of Chinese Culture on Japan Click above to play the video.