- Slides: 25
What is Culture? � Culture – the complex mix of values, beliefs, behaviors, and material objects that together form a people’ way of life (Material/Non. Material) � Values – are culturally defined standards that guide the way people assess desirability, goodness, and beauty, and that serve as guidelines for moral living. � Beliefs, Behaviors, Norms
Cultural Landscape �If you have ever studied the earth’s surface from an airplane thousands of feet in the air, you have observed the cultural landscape – the modification of the natural landscape by human activities.
Culture �Cultural Trait-A single attribute of a culture is called a Culture Trait and a culture region consists of countless numbers of traits. �Cultural Complex “American”
Acculturation �Acculturation – when smaller/weaker groups take on traits of the larger/dominant culture. Can be 2 -way process –. Aztecs acculturated into Spanish culture, but some Aztec traits remained and became Spanish culture.
Assimilation �Assimilation – the adoption of cultural elements can be so complete that two cultures become indistinguishable – e. g. – jeans being worn here in Japan
Folk Culture � Is traditionally practiced by small, homogenous groups living in isolated rural areas Wearing a sari in India � Small Scale � Slow Change due to lack of communication
Popular Culture � Found in large, heterogeneous societies that share certain habits (like wearing jeans) despite differences in personal characteristics. � Varies from time to time at any given place � Changes rapidly � Global V. Local � Environment (Native Americans/Nature)
Diffusion of folk vs. popular culture �Folk culture Anonymous or multiple hearths Relocation, not expansion �Popular culture Deliberate innovation, advanced economies Mass production Expansion (hierarchical or contagious)
Two Types of Diffusion �Expansion �Relocation
Kinds of Expansion Diffusion �Hierarchical Diffusion – spread of an idea through an established structure usually from people or areas of power down to other people or areas
Expansion Diffusion �Contagious Diffusion – spread of an idea/trait/concept through a group of people or an area equally without regard to social class, economic position or position of power.
Expansion Diffusion �Stimulus Diffusion – the spread of an underlying principle even though the characteristic itself does not spread. � OR �Stimulus Diffusion - involves the transfer of an underlying concept or idea, without the specific accompanying traits due to some cultural or other barrier to the movement of the idea
RELOCATION DIFFUSION Sequential diffusion process in which the items being diffused are transmitted by their carrier agents as they evacuate the old areas and relocate to new ones. The most common form of relocation diffusion involves the spreading of innovations by a migrating population. �This occurs when the people migrate and take their cultural attributes with them.
Where do Folk & Popular Culture Originate and Diffuse? �Folk Music Transmitted Orally Folk songs tell a story or convey information about daily activities Spirituals ▪ “Wade in the Water”
Diffusion and music: the blues �Folk music of African- Americans �Based on slavery, religion Call-and-response Hidden messages Subject matter
Diffusion and music: the blues �Hearth: Mississippi Delta �Relocation diffusion: Memphis, Chicago, Texas, St. Louis, Detroit, Piedmont �Contagious diffusion: radio, TV �Popular culture: jazz, rockand-roll, hip-hop
Diffusion and music: the blues �Original hearth: Africa? �Similar sounds, rhythms �Griot or traveling storyteller/musician �Banjo/guitar, percussion
Popular Music �Is written by specific individuals for the purpose of being sold to a large number of people �Broadcasting 1940 s �Hip Hop: Why not folk?
Diffusion and sports: soccer �Spread by contagious diffusion Exchange students from Netherlands English engineers to Spain Expatriates throughout British Empire �Rugby modified in U. S. : American football �Rapid spread through television
Diffusion and sports: soccer �English, Scots, Vikings, Romans, Greeks, Egyptians, Assyrians, Persians, Chinese, Japanese, Native Americans �Folk origin: 11 th century England �Village-wide contests �Banned between late 1300 s and 1600
Diffusion and sports: soccer �Transition to popular culture �Industrial Revolution: more time, income Professional soccer leagues (1863) Standardized rules Distinguished from rugby