CS 101 101 E Aaron Bloomfield Chapter 1

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CS 101 / 101 -E Aaron Bloomfield Chapter 1: Hardware 1

CS 101 / 101 -E Aaron Bloomfield Chapter 1: Hardware 1

What is a computer? • Not a rhetorical question! • “A device that computes,

What is a computer? • Not a rhetorical question! • “A device that computes, especially a programmable electronic machine that performs high-speed mathematical or logical operations or that assembles, stores, correlates, or otherwise processes information” – From American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4 th Edition • By definition, a (properly functioning) computer will always produce the SAME output given the same input 2

The first computers • Scales – computed relative weight of two items – Computed

The first computers • Scales – computed relative weight of two items – Computed if the first item’s weight was less than, equal to, or greater than the second item’s weight • Abacus – performed mathematical computations – Primarily thought of as Chinese, but also Japanese, Mayan, Russian, and Roman versions – Can do square roots and cube roots 3

Computer Size ENIAC then… ENIAC today… 4

Computer Size ENIAC then… ENIAC today… 4

Computer Organization Memory Output Devices Input Devices Central Processing Unit 5

Computer Organization Memory Output Devices Input Devices Central Processing Unit 5

Computer Organization • Computer advertisement specification – Intel® Pentium 4 Processor at 3. 06

Computer Organization • Computer advertisement specification – Intel® Pentium 4 Processor at 3. 06 GHz with 512 K cache – 512 MB DDR SDRAM – 200 GB ATA-100 Hard Drive (7200 RPM, 9. 0 ms seek time) – 17” LCD Monitor – 64 MB NVIDIA Ge. Force 4 MX Graphics Card® – 16 x Max DVD-ROM Drive – 48 x/24 x/48 x CD-RW Drive – 56 K PCI Telephony Modem – Windows XP Home Edition® – 10/100 Fast Ethernet Network Card 6

Computer Organization • Computer advertisement specification – Intel® Pentium 4 Processor at 3. 06

Computer Organization • Computer advertisement specification – Intel® Pentium 4 Processor at 3. 06 GHz with 512 K cache – 512 MB DDR SDRAM – 200 GB ATA-100 Hard Drive (7200 RPM, 9. 0 ms seek time) – 17” LCD Monitor – 64 MB NVIDIA Ge. Force 4 MX Graphics Card® – 16 x Max DVD-ROM Drive – 48 x/24 x/48 x CD-RW Drive – 56 K PCI Telephony Modem – Windows XP Home Edition® – 10/100 Fast Ethernet Network Card 3. 06 billion operations per second 7

Computer Organization • Computer advertisement specification – Intel® Pentium 4 Processor at 3. 06

Computer Organization • Computer advertisement specification – Intel® Pentium 4 Processor at 3. 06 GHz with 512 K cache – 512 MB DDR SDRAM – 200 GB ATA-100 Hard Drive (7200 RPM, 9. 0 ms seek time) – 17” LCD Monitor – 64 MB NVIDIA Ge. Force 4 MX Graphics Card® – 16 x Max DVD-ROM Drive – 48 x/24 x/48 x CD-RW Drive – 56 K PCI Telephony Modem – Windows XP Home Edition® – 10/100 Fast Ethernet Network Card 512 million bytes of memory that can be transferred at double the normal rate A byte is 8 bits A bit is a 0 or a 1 8

Computer Organization • Computer advertisement specification – Intel® Pentium 4 Processor at 3. 06

Computer Organization • Computer advertisement specification – Intel® Pentium 4 Processor at 3. 06 GHz with 512 K cache – 512 MB DDR SDRAM – 200 GB ATA-100 Hard Drive (7200 RPM, 9. 0 ms seek time) – 17” LCD Monitor – 64 MB NVIDIA Ge. Force 4 MX Graphics Card® – 16 x Max DVD-ROM Drive – 48 x/24 x/48 x CD-RW Drive – 56 K PCI Telephony Modem – Windows XP Home Edition® – 10/100 Fast Ethernet Network Card Stores 200 billion bytes of data. You want high RPM and low seek time. 0. 009 seconds is average 9

Computer Organization • Computer advertisement specification – Intel® Pentium 4 Processor at 3. 06

Computer Organization • Computer advertisement specification – Intel® Pentium 4 Processor at 3. 06 GHz with 512 K cache – 512 MB DDR SDRAM – 200 GB ATA-100 Hard Drive (7200 RPM, 9. 0 ms seek time) – 17” LCD Monitor – 64 MB NVIDIA Ge. Force 4 MX Graphics Card® – 16 x Max DVD-ROM Drive – 48 x/24 x/48 x CD-RW Drive – 56 K PCI Telephony Modem – Windows XP Home Edition® – 10/100 Fast Ethernet Network Card 17” on the diagonal. Resolution up to 1, 280 by 1, 024 pixels 10

Computer Organization • Computer advertisement specification – Intel® Pentium 4 Processor at 3. 06

Computer Organization • Computer advertisement specification – Intel® Pentium 4 Processor at 3. 06 GHz with 512 K cache – 512 MB DDR SDRAM – 200 GB ATA-100 Hard Drive (7200 RPM, 9. 0 ms seek time) – 17” LCD Monitor – 64 MB NVIDIA Ge. Force 4 MX Graphics Card® – 16 x Max DVD-ROM Drive – 48 x/24 x/48 x CD-RW Drive – 56 K PCI Telephony Modem – Windows XP Home Edition® – 10/100 Fast Ethernet Network Card Microprocessor for displaying images with 64 million bytes of memory. More memory supports more colors and higher resolution 11

Computer Organization • Computer advertisement specification – Intel® Pentium 4 Processor at 3. 06

Computer Organization • Computer advertisement specification – Intel® Pentium 4 Processor at 3. 06 GHz with 512 K cache – 512 MB DDR SDRAM – 200 GB ATA-100 Hard Drive (7200 RPM, 9. 0 ms seek time) – 17” LCD Monitor – 64 MB NVIDIA Ge. Force 4 MX Graphics Card® – 16 x Max DVD-ROM Drive – 48 x/24 x/48 x CD-RW Drive – 56 K PCI Telephony Modem – Windows XP Home Edition® – 10/100 Fast Ethernet Network Card Reads DVDs 16 times faster than a basic DVD drive. Can hold up to 8 billion bytes of data 12

Computer Organization • Computer advertisement specification – Intel® Pentium 4 Processor at 3. 06

Computer Organization • Computer advertisement specification – Intel® Pentium 4 Processor at 3. 06 GHz with 512 K cache – 512 MB DDR SDRAM – 200 GB ATA-100 Hard Drive (7200 RPM, 9. 0 ms seek time) – 17” LCD Monitor – 64 MB NVIDIA Ge. Force 4 MX Graphics Card® – 16 x Max DVD-ROM Drive – 48 x/24 x/48 x CD-RW Drive – 56 K PCI Telephony Modem – Windows XP Home Edition® – 10/100 Fast Ethernet Network Card Can read and write CDs. Can hold 650 million bytes of data Reads at 48 times faster and writes 24 times faster than a basic drive 13

Computer Organization • Computer advertisement specification – Intel® Pentium 4 Processor at 3. 06

Computer Organization • Computer advertisement specification – Intel® Pentium 4 Processor at 3. 06 GHz with 512 K cache – 512 MB DDR SDRAM – 200 GB ATA-100 Hard Drive (7200 RPM, 9. 0 ms seek time) – 17” LCD Monitor – 64 MB NVIDIA Ge. Force 4 MX Graphics Card® – 16 x Max DVD-ROM Drive – 48 x/24 x/48 x CD-RW Drive – 56 K PCI Telephony Modem – Windows XP Home Edition® – 10/100 Fast Ethernet Network Card Can send or receive up to 56 thousand bits per second 14

Computer Organization • Computer advertisement specification – Intel® Pentium 4 Processor at 3. 06

Computer Organization • Computer advertisement specification – Intel® Pentium 4 Processor at 3. 06 GHz with 512 K cache – 512 MB DDR SDRAM – 200 GB ATA-100 Hard Drive (7200 RPM, 9. 0 ms seek time) – 17” LCD Monitor – 64 MB NVIDIA Ge. Force 4 MX Graphics Card® – 16 x Max DVD-ROM Drive – 48 x/24 x/48 x CD-RW Drive – 56 K PCI Telephony Modem – Windows XP Home Edition® – 10/100 Fast Ethernet Network Card Computer operating system using a graphical interface 15

Computer Organization • Computer advertisement specification – Intel® Pentium 4 Processor at 3. 06

Computer Organization • Computer advertisement specification – Intel® Pentium 4 Processor at 3. 06 GHz with 512 K cache – 512 MB DDR SDRAM – 200 GB ATA-100 Hard Drive (7200 RPM, 9. 0 ms seek time) – 17” LCD Monitor – 64 MB NVIDIA Ge. Force 4 MX Graphics Card® – 16 x Max DVD-ROM Drive – 48 x/24 x/48 x CD-RW Drive – 56 K PCI Telephony Modem – Windows XP Home Edition® – 10/100 Fast Ethernet Network Card Can send or receive data at two rates – 10 or 100 million bytes per second 16

Home network 17

Home network 17

Backbones 18

Backbones 18

Network communication • Communication protocol – Set of rules that govern how data is

Network communication • Communication protocol – Set of rules that govern how data is sent and received • TCP/IP – Exchanging packets of information over the Internet • FTP – Exchanging files between computes • SMTP – Exchanging email over the Internet • POP – Exchanging email between mail reader and the ISP • HTTP – Exchanging files over the WWW • SSL – How information is to be encrypted 19

First Programming Languages • Ada Lovelace (1833) – Programmed of Babbage’s analytical engine •

First Programming Languages • Ada Lovelace (1833) – Programmed of Babbage’s analytical engine • ENIAC (1945) – Programmed by plugging wires • Binary – 100101010010101) • Assembly • FORTRAN (1954) 20

Java Lineage • C (1972) by Dennis Ritchie • C++ (1985) by Bjarne Stroustrup

Java Lineage • C (1972) by Dennis Ritchie • C++ (1985) by Bjarne Stroustrup • Java (1991) by James Gosling and others at Sun Microsystems 21