Croup By Joshua Escobar Jeremy Alexander Rogelio Pedroza
Croup By: Joshua Escobar Jeremy Alexander Rogelio Pedroza Christian Franco
What is Croup? Croup is an infection of the larynx (voice box) and trachea (windpipe). These are the upper and lower parts of the breathing tube that connects the mouth to the top of the lungs. It can be considered an upper or lower respiratory infection as it effects both.
Etiology - - - Croup can be caused by viral infections (most common), bacterial infections, allergies, breathing in something that irritates your airway, or acid reflux. Croup is usually caused by parainfluenza viruses, but there also other viral infections that can cause croup such as RSV (respiratory syncytial virus), measles, and influenza. The etiologic agent is called Haemophilus parainfluenzae which are pleomorphic rods and it is gram-negative.
Epidemiology Sex: Male to female ratio is 1. 4: 1 Age: Primarily ages from 5 months to 3 years with a peak at the age of 2 years because they are more susceptible to getting a viral respiratory infection. In the US it peaks during the Fall season, between the months of October and March. Less than 5% of children diagnosed with Croup were hospitalized. Death occurred in 0. 5% of patients. It is rarely seen in adolescents or adults.
Mode of Transmission Croup can be spread easily through coughing, sneezing, and respiratory secretions such as mucus and droplets from coughing or sneezing. Children with croup are considered contagious for 3 days after the illness begins or until the fever is gone.
Symptoms - Cough: Due to the inflammation of the larynx the patient may develop a harsh cough. - Troubling Breathing: the inflammation of the larynx combined with the production of thick mucous can make breathing difficult. - Sore Throat - Running Nose - Fever
Diagnosis Can be diagnosed by the doctor placing a small clip called a pulse oximeter onto the patients finger, toe, or earlobe to check if enough oxygen is reaching the blood.
Treatment - - Steroid medicines can be prescribed such as dexamethasone or prednisolone to reduce inflammation, they reduce the production of inflammatory chemicals in order to minimize tissue damage. Inhaled adrenaline to shrink swollen area. Steam can be used to treat Croup because it loosens the mucous and makes it easier for the patient to breath.
Prevention - Keep away from sick individuals - Diptheria and Haemophilas infulenza type B vaccines - Frequent hand washing - Encourage your children to sneeze and cough into their elbows
Citations � � Dr. Kim Tenny (03/15/2012). Croup. Retrieved from http: //www. patient. co. uk/health/croup Healthwise Incorporated (08/04/2010). Croup – Topic Overview. Retrieved from http: //www. webmd. com/children/tc/croup-topic-overview Neil K. Kaneshiro, MD (5/16/2012). Croup. Retrieved from http: //www. nlm. nih. gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000959. htm Wilkinson JM (12/29/2012) Disease and Conditions: Croup. Retrieved from http: //www. mayoclinic. org/diseases-conditions/croup/basics/treatment/con 20014673? footprints=mine