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批判型思� Critical Thinking
批判型思�和��思�的关系 Design Thinking Critical Thinking
批判型思�和��思�的关系 Critical Thinking Principles • Questioning Assumptions • Defining Terms • Discerning the difference between logical validity and TRUTH Design Thinking Principles • Exploration with an open mind and no assumptions • Identify the CORE issue • Zoom out for quantity first, zoom in for the best selection
��思� Design Thinking
��思� Design Thinking is a creative approach to problem solving. It’s a process that starts with the people you’re designing for and ends with new solutions that are tailor made to suit their needs. Design Thinking is all about building a deep empathy with the people you’re designing for; generating tons of ideas; building a bunch of prototypes; sharing what you’ve made with the people you’re designing for; and eventually putting your innovative new solution out in the world.
��思�的�史 WHERE DOES DESIGN THINKING COME FROM? • Observation and Notation of Design Process from Architects and other Designers • Term devised by Horst Rittel (Professor of Design at Ulm University in Germany) and. Melvin Webber (Professor of Urban Designer and Theorist at UC Berkeley) in 1973 • Originally in the context of Public Policy problems (aging, climate change, pollution, earthquakes, healthcare, economic problems
��思�的�史 WHERE DOES DESIGN THINKING COME FROM? (CONTINUED) TWO relevant points: 1) scientific rational approach difficult to apply; and 2) they borrowed from Behavioral Science theory AND design for this approach.
Wicked Problems “Wicked Problems” = not having any singular clear solution, no permanent solution, only good or bad solutions (no “wrong” solutions); different perspectives on the problem. SOLUTION DEPENDS ON HOW THE PROBLEM IS FRAMED “Wicked Problems” = 从不同的角度来看问题，没有单一清晰的解决方案，没有永远不变 的解决方案，只有好与不好的方案(注意不是对与错) 对于问题本身的不同定义决定了解决方案的方向
Wicked Problems • Multiple stakeholders • Many Difft potential solutions • Solution changes over time (no permanent solution)
Wicked Problems Elements of process used by designers 1. Solution focused rather than problem focused 2. Have to prioritize across different requirements 3. Requires working with many different types of people
Link between Wicked Problems & Design Thinking “One of the essential characteristics of design problems then is that they [the problem] are often not apparent but must be found. Unlike cross- word puzzles, brain-teasers or mathematical problems, neither the goal nor the obstacle to achieving that goal are clearly expressed. In fact, the initial expression of design problems may often be quite misleading. ” (Bryan Lawson, 2010) “Design Problem/Wicked Problem的一个特点是它通常并不明显，需要被发现。它和字谜， 脑力测试或者数学问题不同，它的解决方案以及通往解决方案的路径往往都不明确。甚至很多 时候这些问题的最初的呈现具有很强的误导性。” (Bryan Lawson, 2010)
DT 流程和 具 DT Process & Tools Explore Conceptualize Develop…. AND REPEAT Empathy, observation, immersion Ideate Define Process Establish Scope, Prototype Test Facts and Figures Scanning the Landscape Wild Safari “Backcasting” New Combinations Bright Stars Empathy Maps and more… Get Visual and more… Critical Assumptions Role Playing Story Boarding Road Map and more…
探索 Explore what team already knows about the problem what the team needs to learn about the problem
探索 Explore It is in the EXPLORE are where critical thinking FIRST plays an important role, eg "listening without interpreting, " "open-mind, " "listen like a child, " all predicated on truly listening and NOT assuming.
探索 Explore Sources of Information • • own experience others’ experience existing research new research EMPATHY OBSERVATION IMMERSION
探索的流程 Exploration Steps 1. Recognize that we are facing a wicked problem (no clear direction; no one right solution) 2. Set Initial Goals as a team 3. Based on the goals, explore from all possible perspectives to gather information/data/insights/constraints (NOT solutions) • We can record conversation, collect quotes, build user persona, collect user specs etc. … 4. Then analyze and organize the results from the exploration activities to reframe the problem, which serves as the starting point of ideation activities
��重构 Reframe Reframing = honing in on the actual issue based on insight from Explore process eg. some user need the team wasn't area of before; Or some assumption the team made when first identifying the problem that turned out to be false
��重构 Reframe This is the 2 nd place where critical thinking plays a role in Design Thinking, identifying the core issue, and NOT the issue as you first identified it.
��重构 Reframe Narrow down, broaden or deepen the original brief into compelling questions that beg to be answered
��重构 Reframe Formulate a Creative Question based on intriguing insights, user needs and/or inspirations. Use this formula: How Might We(HMW) [Action Verb] for a [User] who [Insight] and/or with [Need] e. g. HMW improve education for kids who cannot afford private school?
构思 Conceptualize 1. Based on your HMW question, brainstorm and create as many concepts as possible 2. Select and further develop the top ideas
构思的�� Conceptualize Rules 1. Defer Judgement 2. Encourage Wild Ideas 3. Build On The Ideas Of Others 4. Stay Focused On The Topic 5. One Conversation At A Time 6. Be Visual 7. Go For Quantity
从�散到收� From Diverge to Converge Your HMW Question Synthesize Set Goals What to Exploreneeds How to Explore Insights Reframing Original Brief Brainstorming Select Ideas Generate Ideas Refine Ideas Best Solutions
GE MRI Case – From Terrifying to Terrific Original Brief: How to improve MRI experience? HMW: How might we create a fun environment that helps children to go through the MRI process Dough Dietz – Engineer at GE
GE MRI Case – From Terrifying to Terrific
Case Discussion： Eat. Well
��与�作 Team Work Discussion: What’s the difference between individuals being together vs. individuals being together as a team
Google’s Research: The Perfect Team NYT Magazine, Feb. 25, 2016
Google Case Study Why Teams? • • • Innovate faster See mistakes more quickly Better solutions to problems Higher job satisfaction Higher profitability
Google Case Study Google’s Approach： Project Aristotle • • Analyze all available data Hired a team to research Reviewed academic studies on teams and behavior 180 teams in Google were analyzed
Google Case Study Insight： Group Norms What is a group norm? Behavioral standards, unwritten rules and traditions that govern how the group interacts.
Google Case Study “Best” Group Norms: • All members speak in approximately the same proportion • High “average social sensitivity” Result: “Psychological Safety”
Google Case Study “A sense of confidence that the team will not embarrass, reject or punish someone for speaking up” • Interpersonal Trust • Mutual Respect
��与�作 Team Work FIVE characteristics which distinguish the group from a collection of individuals 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The members of the group are in interaction with one another. They share a common goal They share a set of norms. Goals and norms impose a direction and limits to group activity. They also develop a set of roles and a network of interpersonal attraction, which serve to differentiate themselves from other groups.
Team Exercise: The Desert Island Challenge
Desert Island Challenge In Your Teams… • You are a group of strangers who have been cruising around the Indonesian Sea, enjoying all the luxuries that a top class cruise liner has to offer. • Last night, a bad storm left your ship in pieces and your group are the only remaining survivors. • You are in a small lifeboat with five other people. There is very little room and you are only just managing to keep the water out. You have some things in a small rucksack that will help you to survive once you reach the desert island that you can see on the horizon.
Desert Island Challenge • • However, you can’t take them all with you… you can carry five of the items from the rucksack and you have 20 minutes to decide (which includes transition time to your breakout area and back). Your team must then explain your choices to convince me that you made the right choice. I want to know which items you chose and the rationale for your team’s choices. Body Warming Bag (Foil) Set of 4 Flares Tin of Beans Pack of Cigarettes Torch with Batteries Whistle Box of Matches Set of Keys Large Rope Blunt Knife Mirror Bottle of Rum Sleeping Bag Magazine Set of 3 Small Fishing Hooks Basic First Aid Kit 500 ml Bottle of Water Ballpoint Pen Mobile Phone (not a satellite phone) Tin Cup
Desert Island Challenge Debrief Discussion: • There are multiple correct answers, depending on the objective. • It’s important to understand the problem ‒ How to survive for a long time ‒ How to survive long enough to get rescued ‒ How to enjoy the little time remaining before we all die