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What is psychology • Psychology is the scientific study of the mind and behavior. • It explains the complex factors that shape one’s behavior.
Why is ‘scientific' important? : • ‘scientific’ -a set of procedures is followed to gather information in ways that minimize error/bias and yield dependable result. • A question (hypothesis) • Procedures/experiments • Data/analysis • Results/Findings
What/How are different elements responsible for behaviour? • Biology-Genetics ------------- • Environment
Pioneers of Psychology https: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/History_of_psychology • Philosophical interest in the mind and behavior dates back to the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Persia, Greece, China, and India. • Psychology is a relatively young science with its roots in the 19 th century.
Pioneers of Psychology William James- (1842– 1910) Functionalism American psychologist from the 19 th century. 7
Pioneers of Psychology Wilhelm Wundt - (1832– 1920) Structuralism German psychologist. 8
Pioneers of Psychology Ivan Pavlov (1849– 1936) Behaviorism • Russian physiologist • Studied a form of learning behavior called a conditioned reflex. 9
Pioneers of Psychology Abraham Maslow(1908– 1970) Hierarchy of human needs • An American psychologist. 10
Pioneers of Psychology Sigmund Freud- (1856– 1939) PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY An Austrian neurologist and one of the most influential and well-known figure in psychology’s history. He was fascinated by patients suffering from “hysteria”, an ancient diagnosis for disorders, primarily of women with a wide variety of symptoms, including physical symptoms and emotional disturbances, none of which had an apparent physical cause. 12
FREUD AND PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY • Freud theorized that in many of his patients’ problems arose from the unconscious mind. • In his view, the unconscious mind was a repository of feelings and urges of which we have no awareness. • Gaining access to the unconscious, then, was crucial to the successful resolution of the patient’s problems. 13
FREUD AND PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY • According to Freud, the unconscious mind could be accessed through dream analysis, by examinations of the first words that came to people’s minds, and through seemingly innocent slips of the tongue. • Psychoanalytic theory focuses on the role of a person’s unconscious, as well as early childhood experiences. • This perspective dominated clinical psychology for several decades and even now. 14
Contemporary Psychology It is influenced by all of the historical perspectives described in the preceding section. • Biological psychologists: want to understand how the structure and function of the nervous system is related to behavior. • Cognitive psychology: focuses on studying cognitions, or thoughts and their relationship to our actions.
Contemporary Psychology • Evolutionary psychology: examines how psychological adjustments are made in the process of evolution. • Developmental psychology: is the study of how a person develops psychologically over the course of their life. • Forensic psychology: is the application of psychology to the process of criminal investigation and the law.
Contemporary Psychology • Health psychology: observes how health can be influenced by behavior, biology and social context. • Neuropsychology: examines the how the brain functions in relation to different behaviors and psychological processes. • Occupational psychology: investigates how people perform at work in order to develop an understanding of how organizations function. • Social psychology: is a study of how the behavior and thoughts of people are influenced by the actual or implied presence of others. 17