COURSE IN ENGLISH LEXICOLOGY WORDFORMATION WORDFORMATON is a
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COURSE IN ENGLISH LEXICOLOGY
WORD-FORMATION WORD-FORMATON is a branch of linguistics that is major in studying the formal structure of the word, its components and their meanings
WHAT IS MORPHEME? a minimal formal word component bases on the MORPHEME is association of the given meaning with a given sound pattern
TYPES OF MORPHEMES AFFIXES MORPHEME STEM ROOT
WHAT IS ROOT? ROOT is a semantic nucleus of a word with which no grammatical properties of this word are connected.
WHAT IS STEM? STEM is a part of word that remains unchanged throughout its paradigm and to which the grammatical inflections and affixes are added. E. g. boy-boys-boyish-boyhood; happy-happiness, happy-unhappiness drama-dramatical-nondramatical-dramatism
WHAT IS AFFIX? AFFIX is a minimal word component that possesses its own lexical and grammatical meaning that gives the extra -semantical components to the word and determines its grammatical properties. E. g. poet-poetess, waiter-waitress, do-does, pretty-prettier-prettiest, makeremake-unmake
TYPES OF AFFIXES Affixes prefix a derivational morpheme standing before the root and modifying its meaning suffix a derivational morpheme following the stem and forming a new derivative in a different part of speech infix an affix placed within the word
WAYS OF WORD-FORMATION Composition Shortening Blending Onomatopoeia type of word-formation in which the word is combined by two or more stems. Closed: mirk+wood=mirkwood note+book=notebook Hyphenated: six-year-old, mother-in-law Open: post office, prosecutor general, middle class the syllable or part of a combination of two words Forming words by the original word is that includes the letters or imitating different omitted. sounds they have in kinds of sounds that common as a linking may be produced by omnibus – bus, are element. things or living beings. not – aren’t vegetarian - veg oil+billionaire=oilonaire Hush, bark, pee-wee, melody+drama=melodrama om-nom, quack motor+hotel=motel Reduplication Formation of the new words by doubling the same stem. There also can be change of vowels and consonants. Hush-hush, blah-blah, criss-cross, hurdy-gurdy, see-saw.
WAYS OF WORD-FORMATION (CONT. ) Acronymy a method to form a word by the first letters of the significant components in a word-combination. Reversion (Back. Formation) derivation of new words by subtracting a real or supposed affix from existing words through misinterpretation of their E. g. North Atlantic Treaty structure. Organization - NATO E. g. orator - -er> orate, lecher + -er> lech, peddler + -er> peddle, escalator + -er> escalate, editor + -er> edit, swindle + -er> swindle, sculptor + -er> sculpt, hawker + -er> hawk. Conversion Substantivation Etymological Doublets process that assigns an already existing word to a new word class (part of speech) or syntactic category. A process of transferring the adjective into a category of a noun. two or more words of the same language which were derived by different routes from the same basic word. E. g. Henry downed a pint of beer. Melissa went to town and did a buy E. g. a private, the private’s uniform, a group of privates; the rich, the poor, the injured, captive, conservative, criminal, female, fugitive, grownup, intellectual, male, mild, native, neutral, radical, red, relative E. g. hole-whole, cloack-clock, grammar-glamour
WHAT IS POLYSEMY? a co-existence of various meanings of the same word at POLYSEMY is a certain historical period of the language development.
HOW DOES POLYSEMY DEVELOP? • 1. RADIATION is a semantic process in which in a group of meanings one is central and the others proceed put of it. • 2. CONCATENATION is a semantic process when the meanings or some of them move away from their first meaning. • 3. SPLIT OF POLYSEMY is a process when a new meaning looses all its connections with all the other meanings and starts independent existence.
WHAT IS HOMONIMY? • HOMONIMY is a phenomenon at which the words of the same or close pronunciation and different spelling have different meanings. • Such words are called homonyms. accept-except, aisle-isle, giltguilt, mail-male
WHAT ARE HOMOPHONES? HOMOPHONES are the words of the same sound, yet they have different spelling. for-four-fore, feet-feat, beat-beet, ate-eight, sail-sale, right-write, ant-aunt, see-sea
WHAT ARE HOMOGRAPHS? axes - the plural of ax or axe/the HOMOGRAPHS are the words written in the similar manner but with different sound and meaning. plural of axis desert - a hot, arid region/to leave or a tasty meal at the end of the course does - female deer (plural)/present, third person singular form of the verb “do” wind - to turn/moving air wound - turned/an injury
WHAT IS SYNONYMY? • SYNONOMY is a relation of several words different in sound and morphemic components but identical within a part of the speech and lexical meaning. • Such words are called synonyms. • They create a synonymic group where the words can be distinguished by connotation, shades of meaning and idiomatic use. • Synonymic dominant is a dominant element of each synonymic group containing the specific features rendered by all the other members of this group. Beautiful – fine-pretty-nice-coolgorgeous-handsome Dark – darkness-shadow-gloommirk (murk)-obscuration Calculate – compute-reckonestimate
TYPES OF SYNONYMS • Ideographic (the same notion with different shades of meaning) Ascent – to mount – to climb Happen – to occur – to befall – to chance Look – appearance – complexion – countenance • Stylistic (words of different stylistic features) Child-infant-kid Die-to kick the bucket • Contextual (words similar in meaning only under some specific conditions) clever bright brainy intelligent Only speaking Is not used by the about younger Positive neutral higher educated people by older connotation people Dever-clever Stylistically remarked
TYPES OF SYNONYMS (CONT. ) • Local (words that do not differ either ideographically of stylistically but are used in different regions or countries speaking the same language) Lift – elevator Queue – line Autumn – fall • Total (words that coincide in all the shades of meaning and in their stylistic features, may replace each other in different contexts) Total-absolute
WHAT IS ANTONYMY? • ANTONYMY is a relation between pair of words based upon opposing their lexical meaning. • Such words are called antonyms • They create antonymic pairs. • • Beautiful-ugly Good-bad Accurate-approximate Create-destroy
TYPES OF ANTONYMS • Gradable (represent rather more-or-less relations): hot-cold, fast-slow, increase-decrease • Complementary (if you are one, you cannot be another ): live-dead, legal-illegal, beginning-end • Converse (relationship between two or more things): above-below, before-after, buy-sell, lend-borrow
WHAT IS HYPONYMY? • HYPONYMY is a relationship of inclusion of some words in a group of similar words. • HYPERNIM is a major word of this group identifying a general class • HYPERONYM is a word included to the group of words with the identical specific meaning • FLOWER – daisy, poppy, tulip, forget-me-not
WHAT IS PHRASEOLOGY? • 1. a branch of linguistics that deals with studying the phraseological units • 2. a whole set of the phraseological units in the language
WHAT IS PHRASEOLOGICAL UNIT? a word-combination with its own fixed lexical meaning that PHRASEOLOGICAL UNIT is hardly can be judged by its individual components.
TYPES OF PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS • Idiom (a group of words the meaning of which is difficult or impossible to understand from knowing the words considered separately): as easy as a pie, to crown it all, lame duck, red tape, bed of nail • Set expression (a group of words characterized by their stability, fixed and ready-made nature): at the beginning, at the end, get to the point • Semi-fixed combinations (groups of words permitting a certain substitution of their elements): to go to the (cinema, theatre etc. ), give a lift (ride) • Free phrases (group of words permitting substitution of any of its elements without semantic change in the other element or elements): She was not managing to cut much of a figure = to cut a poor figure (to be inimportant) • Phraseological fusion (word combinations in which the meaning of components is completely absorbed by the meaning of the whole by its expressiveness or emotional background): tit for tat, to and fro, apples and oranges, under the rose, once in a blue moon • Phraseological unity (word combinations the emotional quality of which is based on the image created by the whole; may be easily translated and allow certain substitutions) to know the way where the wind is blowing, to stick to smb. ’s guns, as dead as a doornail, to beat blue and green (to beat black and blue), to come to one’s sense, to fall into rage
TYPES OF PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS (CONT) • Phraseological combinations (word groups containing one component used in its direct meaning while the other is used figuratively): to make an attempt, to make haste to offer an apology • Proverbs (a short familiar epigrammatic saying expressing a popular wisdom, a truth or a moral lesson in a concise and imaginative way): East or West home is best. The dog barks, the caravan goes. A road to hell is paved with good intensions. • Cliches (phrases that have lost their original expressiveness and became state): in terms of, under conditions that, best regards, avoid like plague, age before beauty, Pandora’s box