Couldnt youtitle get someone Insert the of your

  • Slides: 35
Download presentation
Couldn’t youtitle get someone Insert the of your younger to drive to Glasgow? presentation

Couldn’t youtitle get someone Insert the of your younger to drive to Glasgow? presentation here Presented byby Britta Lang Presented Name Here Principal Research Job Title - Date Consultant 13 th October 2011, PACTS

Agenda 1 Reasons to consider fitness to drive 2 Age-related changes 3 Age &

Agenda 1 Reasons to consider fitness to drive 2 Age-related changes 3 Age & productivity in the workplace 4 Age and driving performance 5 Gaps in knowledge 6 Summary & employer actions Page 2

Demographic developments Proportion of over 65 year olds in the population USA Japan Germany

Demographic developments Proportion of over 65 year olds in the population USA Japan Germany France Italy UK 1980 11. 2 9. 0 15. 6 14. 0 13. 1 15. 1 1990 12. 4 12. 0 15. 0 14. 0 15. 3 15. 7 2000 12. 5 17. 1 16. 4 15. 9 18. 2 16. 0 2010 13. 2 21. 5 19. 8 16. 6 20. 8 17. 1 2020 16. 6 26. 2 21. 6 20. 1 24. 1 19. 8 2050 26. 9 42. 3 38. 1 32. 7 42. 3 34. 0 Source: Assailly, INRETS (2011) Percentage of people employed who are of Statutory Pension Age (SPA) or older has increased from 8% in 1992 to 12% in 2009 (HSE, 2011). Page

Licence holding forecasts - Males Source: Kit Mitchell (2011) Page 4

Licence holding forecasts - Males Source: Kit Mitchell (2011) Page 4

Licence holding forecasts - Females Page 5 Source: Kit Mitchell (2011)

Licence holding forecasts - Females Page 5 Source: Kit Mitchell (2011)

The change in legislation From 6 th April 2011 no further issuing of notifications

The change in legislation From 6 th April 2011 no further issuing of notifications for compulsory retirement using the Default Retirement Age (DRA) procedure Full abolition of the DRA as of 1 st October 2011 Decisions of when an employee should stop working to be based on their performance rather than their age Page

The change in legislation Possibility of maintenance of a set retirement age if it

The change in legislation Possibility of maintenance of a set retirement age if it can be objectively justified as proportionate response to a legitimate aim But: no case law available Page

“Inevitable” age-related deteriorations Cognitive - Deceleration of information processing, deterioration of working memory, selective/

“Inevitable” age-related deteriorations Cognitive - Deceleration of information processing, deterioration of working memory, selective/ divided attention Perceptual - Reduced visual & aural acuity, sensitivity to glare Physical - Restricted mobility & joint movements (particularly head & neck), reduction of (grip) strength - Higher need for recovery from physical demands Page

Illness and disability Conditions reported to most likely affect people’s (60+ years) ability or

Illness and disability Conditions reported to most likely affect people’s (60+ years) ability or wish to stay in work (ONS, 2008): • Heart, blood pressure circulation • Back or neck • Legs or feet • Arms or hands • Diabetes • Chest, breathing problems Page 9 Proportion of workforce with long-term health problems or disability (ONS, 2008)

Health & life expectancy trends (HSE, 2011) Lifestyle changes & some associated health outcomes

Health & life expectancy trends (HSE, 2011) Lifestyle changes & some associated health outcomes (NHS, 2009): Projected life expectancy at State Pension Age by gender - Blood pressure reductions - Cardiovascular disease level stable - Increases in diabetes (2. 4% in 1994 vs. 4. 9% in 2006) - Increases in obesity Page Source: ONS, 2008

Increasing life expectancy Because of: Healthier diets Reduced smoking Increased physical exercise Improved (access

Increasing life expectancy Because of: Healthier diets Reduced smoking Increased physical exercise Improved (access to) medical provisions & technology Page

EU trends 1980 -2005 Males Page 12 Source: International Obesity Task Force (2005)

EU trends 1980 -2005 Males Page 12 Source: International Obesity Task Force (2005)

EU trends 1980 -2005 Males Page 13 Source: International Obesity Task Force (2005)

EU trends 1980 -2005 Males Page 13 Source: International Obesity Task Force (2005)

EU trends 1980 -2005 Females Page 14 Source: International Obesity Task Force (2005)

EU trends 1980 -2005 Females Page 14 Source: International Obesity Task Force (2005)

EU trends 1980 -2005 Females Page 15 Source: International Obesity Task Force (2005)

EU trends 1980 -2005 Females Page 15 Source: International Obesity Task Force (2005)

Obesity Trends* Among U. S. Adults BRFSS, 1985 (*BMI ≥ 30, or ~ 30

Obesity Trends* Among U. S. Adults BRFSS, 1985 (*BMI ≥ 30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%– 14% Source: Behavioural Risk Surveillance System , CDC

Obesity Trends* Among U. S. Adults BRFSS, 1990 (*BMI ≥ 30, or ~ 30

Obesity Trends* Among U. S. Adults BRFSS, 1990 (*BMI ≥ 30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%– 14% Source: Behavioural Risk Surveillance System , CDC

Obesity Trends* Among U. S. Adults BRFSS, 1995 (*BMI ≥ 30, or ~ 30

Obesity Trends* Among U. S. Adults BRFSS, 1995 (*BMI ≥ 30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%– 14% 15%– 19% Source: Behavioural Risk Surveillance System , CDC

Obesity Trends* Among U. S. Adults BRFSS, 2000 (*BMI ≥ 30, or ~ 30

Obesity Trends* Among U. S. Adults BRFSS, 2000 (*BMI ≥ 30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%– 14% 15%– 19% ≥ 20% Source: Behavioural Risk Surveillance System , CDC

Obesity Trends* Among U. S. Adults BRFSS, 2005 (*BMI ≥ 30, or ~ 30

Obesity Trends* Among U. S. Adults BRFSS, 2005 (*BMI ≥ 30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data ≥ 30% <10% 10%– 14% 15%– 19% 20%– 24% 25%– 29% Source: Behavioural Risk Surveillance System , CDC

Obesity Trends* Among U. S. Adults BRFSS, 2010 (*BMI ≥ 30, or ~ 30

Obesity Trends* Among U. S. Adults BRFSS, 2010 (*BMI ≥ 30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data ≥ 30% <10% 10%– 14% 15%– 19% 20%– 24% 25%– 29% Source: Behavioural Risk Surveillance System , CDC

Recommended reading http: //www. hse. gov. uk/resear ch/rrpdf/rr 832. pdf Older workers defined as

Recommended reading http: //www. hse. gov. uk/resear ch/rrpdf/rr 832. pdf Older workers defined as individuals over 50 (Benjamin & Wilson, 2005) Page

Age and productivity/performance at work Most reviews & studies of age & work performance

Age and productivity/performance at work Most reviews & studies of age & work performance do not suggest that job performance decreases with age (Ng & Feldman, 2008). Some evidence of performance deterioration with age found in jobs that have: - exceptionally high cognitive demands - high physical workload - Lower job control (Silverstein, 2008, Costa & Sartori, 2007). Page

Age and productivity/performance at work Absence of strong association between age & performance because:

Age and productivity/performance at work Absence of strong association between age & performance because: - Inter-individual differences; aging as a highly individual process - Knowledge & experience compensate at least partially for age-related declines in cognitive functions - Workers very rarely operate close to their upper performance capability Silverstein, 2008 Page

Age and driving performance Car driver casualty rate per licensed driver in Britain 2008

Age and driving performance Car driver casualty rate per licensed driver in Britain 2008 Page Source: RAC, 2010

Self-regulation “Self-regulation implies that drivers make adjustments in their driving behaviour that adequately match

Self-regulation “Self-regulation implies that drivers make adjustments in their driving behaviour that adequately match changing cognitive, sensory and motor capacities. Examples of such behaviours include reductions in driving distance and avoidance of busy traffic and night driving. ” (Charlton et al. 2006, p. 364) Page

Self-regulation Evidence for reduction of annual mileage in older drivers in longitudinal self-report survey

Self-regulation Evidence for reduction of annual mileage in older drivers in longitudinal self-report survey with n=395 aged 54+; T 1 1994/95, T 2, 1997/98 (Rabbitt, Carmichael, Shilling & Sutcliff, 2002) Significant associations between visual & attentional impairments & avoidance of certain driving situations such as (Ball, Owsley, Stalvey, Roenker, Sloane & Graves, 1998) : - Driving at night - High traffic roads - Rush hour traffic - High speed roads - Driving alone - Right hand turns across oncoming traffic - Driving in the rain Drivers with cognitive impairments reported less avoidance of driving situations that those with visual impairments Page

This suggests Good evidence that age in itself is not associated with losses of

This suggests Good evidence that age in itself is not associated with losses of productivity in the work context Good evidence that older drivers are not overrepresented in road crashes Because older people may restructure (the way they approach) the task Page

BUT Self-regulation is mainly discussed in relation to private motoring Changes in driving behaviours

BUT Self-regulation is mainly discussed in relation to private motoring Changes in driving behaviours are mediated by the end of work careers and greater choice about when, where and how long to drive Areas of concern include situations/ tasks where restructuring/ self-regulating is not an option We currently have no definitive evidence on how older drivers would perform in the situations they are avoiding Possibility of older drivers’ higher accident involvement in situations where self-regulation is not possible, i. e. driving for work Page

What are the problems we need to consider in relation to older drivers at

What are the problems we need to consider in relation to older drivers at work? Work-related driving, including: - Professional drivers - Company car drivers Areas of concern: - Diabetes/ obesity - Impact of (multiple) medicinal drugs - (Stress) resilience/ recovery - Fatigue/sleep apnoea - Journey planning (long drives, driving under time pressure, driving in hazardous environments) Page

Minimum medical fitness standards Group 1: - Motor cars & motor cycles - Valid

Minimum medical fitness standards Group 1: - Motor cars & motor cycles - Valid until age with subsequent renewal every 3 years Group 2: - Lorries/ trucks (category C) & buses (category D) - Valid until age 45 with subsequent renewal every 5 years until age 65 & annual renewal thereafter Are drivers aware? Page

Holland & Rabitt, 1992 54 current drivers in the 50 -70 ties complete questionnaire

Holland & Rabitt, 1992 54 current drivers in the 50 -70 ties complete questionnaire on: - Self-reported vision & hearing abilities - Avoidance of potentially difficult driving situations - Crash involvement over last 3 years Vision & hearing test carried out & results fed back to participants 2 months follow up: self-report of changes to driving behaviour Participants with vision difficulties report greater avoidance of driving in the dark or at dusk (r=. 43; p<. 001; r=. 51; p<. 001); drivers who report more avoidance were less involved in crashes (r= -. 26; p<. 05) 36 of 59 participants report changes to their driving behaviour in response to the feedback received on sensory deteriorations Page

Summary and employer actions The older workforce is a reality Aging is a highly

Summary and employer actions The older workforce is a reality Aging is a highly variable process; employers need to respond on a case by case basis Employers need to raise awareness for age effects & how these may affect driving related performance Employers need to take accommodations that ensure that safe driving on the job is maintained; this may include - Focus on & flexibility in in journey planning - Eliminating unnecessary journeys - Restructuring the job Open discussions with employees and collaborative planning is likely to be welcomed and appreciated Page

Do You Have Any Questions? Page 34

Do You Have Any Questions? Page 34

Thank you Presented by Britta Lang Principal Research Consultant – 13/10/2011 Tel: 01344 770024

Thank you Presented by Britta Lang Principal Research Consultant – 13/10/2011 Tel: 01344 770024 Email: [email protected] co. uk Page 35