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WHAT IS CORRUPTION? Corruption is a form of dishonesty or criminal activity undertaken by a person or organization entrusted with a position of authority, often to acquire illicit benefit. Corruption may include many activities such as bribery and embezzlement, though it may also involve practices that are legal in many countries. Corruption is most commonplace in kleptocracies, oligarchies, narco-states and mafia states.
Corruption can occur on different scales. Corruption ranges from small favors between a small number of people, to corruption that affects the government on a large scale and corruption that is so prevalent that it is part of the everyday structure of society, including corruption as one of the symptoms of organized crime. Corruption and crime are endemic sociological occurrences which appear with regular frequency in virtually all countries on a global scale in varying degree and proportion
SCALES OF CORRUPTION Petty corruption occurs on a smaller scale and takes place at the implementation end of public services when public officials meet the public � Grand corruption is defined as corruption occurring at the highest levels of government in a way that requires significant subversion of the political, legal and economic systems. Such corruption is commonly found in countries with authoritarian or dictatorial governments but also in those without adequate policing of corruption. � Systemic corruption (or endemic corruption) is corruption which is primarily due to the weaknesses of an organization or process. It can be contrasted with individual officials or agents who act corruptly within the system. �
Types of corruption: • • • White Corruption or Nepotism is giving privileges based on cousin and friendly relationships, without expectations of service. As such, white corruption is not a criminal offense, possibly an employer or superiors could sanction, that is to say, under disciplinary responsibility. However, while the legal system remains powerless, anti-corruption organizations advocate and argue that this type of corruption should be fought against. Gray corruption is giving privileges by the principle of "service for the service", regardless of family and friendship Black Corruption is giving privileges with the direct application of bribes, most often monetary compensation. This type of corruption is mainly compiled for health or education. Giving and receiving bribes is one of the most diverse forms of corruption. A bribe is given and receives in order for an authorized person to do something that is not within its jurisdiction or not to do something.
United Nations Convention against Corruption(2003) Article 1. Statement of purpose The purposes of this Convention are: • (a) To promote and strengthen measures to prevent and combat corruption more efficiently and effectively • (b) To promote, facilitate and support international cooperation and technical assistance in the prevention of and fight against corruption, including in asset recovery • (c) To promote integrity, accountability and proper management of public affairs and public property.
The Anti-Corruption Strategy includes the following measures: 1. adoption of anti-corruption laws 2. the recovery of political institutions and state bodies that will carry out the fight against corruption (police, prosecution, courts) 3. creating a network of control mechanisms that will threaten the work of state authorities and political institutions 4. wake up citizens' awareness of the fight against corruption 5. public monitoring of corruption cases 6. solving cases of corruption with material evidence through a short procedure.
AND THANK YOU FOR ATTENTION! RAŠKOVIĆ PETAR 121/16 KNEŽEVIĆ STEVO 133/16