Correlates of delinquency Gender Differences Aggression Anger vs

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Correlates of delinquency • • Gender Differences Aggression Anger vs. depression Visual spatial vs.

Correlates of delinquency • • Gender Differences Aggression Anger vs. depression Visual spatial vs. verbal skills Competition vs. relationships Reasons: nature vs. nurture

Gender • Masculinity hypothesis • Precocious sexuality • Hormonal differences; testosterone vs. premenstrual syndrome,

Gender • Masculinity hypothesis • Precocious sexuality • Hormonal differences; testosterone vs. premenstrual syndrome, leading to aggression • Evolutionary differences

Gender • • Socialization differences Chivalry hypothesis Fallen/evil women Differences in socialization expectations and

Gender • • Socialization differences Chivalry hypothesis Fallen/evil women Differences in socialization expectations and level of supervision • Social backgrounds of male and female differences are similar

Gender • • • Violent behavior 9: 1 Boys more likely to use a

Gender • • • Violent behavior 9: 1 Boys more likely to use a gun Both tend to assault/kill people they know Property crime/drugs 5: 1, more common among females

Family & delinquency • • • Changing American family Family composition Working and child

Family & delinquency • • • Changing American family Family composition Working and child care Economics Child abuse and neglect

Correlates of delinquency • Attachment: affectional tie between adult and child • Normally appears

Correlates of delinquency • Attachment: affectional tie between adult and child • Normally appears during the first few months of life; noticeable around 4 -5 months • Two way street: adaptive value

Attachment • Necessary to growth (failure to thrive syndrome) and development (cognitive) • Children

Attachment • Necessary to growth (failure to thrive syndrome) and development (cognitive) • Children who do not form an attachment during the first two years of life typically have behavioral problems, difficulties in relationships and do more poorly in school • Attachment helps parent to control the child; approval/disapproval has an impact

Correlates • Delinquency more frequently associated with lack of attachment, on the part of

Correlates • Delinquency more frequently associated with lack of attachment, on the part of child and/or parent • Parents more likely not to “follow through” on efforts for their children • Attachment associated with: babies that are attractive, easy to take care of, stable environment

Attachment • Lack of attachment associated with: difficult babies, sick or premature babies, chaotic

Attachment • Lack of attachment associated with: difficult babies, sick or premature babies, chaotic environment • Recent research suggests that providing very early interventions with high risk mothers, home visits, etc. , has an impact on later delinquency

Discipline • Hallmark is inconsistent discipline • Not necessarily a lack of discipline, as

Discipline • Hallmark is inconsistent discipline • Not necessarily a lack of discipline, as is commonly thought • Inconsistency in terms of rewards for desired behaviors, punishment for undesired behaviors

Supervision • Delinquency associated with lack of supervision/neglect • Lack of supervision might be

Supervision • Delinquency associated with lack of supervision/neglect • Lack of supervision might be associated with lack of attachment • Parents who keep close tabs on where their children are, who they are with, and monitor frequently, are less likely to produce delinquents

Family structure • Large family size associated with delinquency, particularly among the poor •

Family structure • Large family size associated with delinquency, particularly among the poor • Middle children • Having older male siblings, particularly if they are delinquent • Having older sisters is protective (may be a supervision factor)

Parental deviance • Parental deviance (criminality, substance abuse) associated with delinquency • Related problems:

Parental deviance • Parental deviance (criminality, substance abuse) associated with delinquency • Related problems: ADHD, alcoholism have a genetic basis and may be associated with delinquency • 8% of youths with noncriminal fathers become delinquent, vs. 37% of those with criminal fathers

Parental deviance • Maternal depression associated with delinquency (might involve lack of supervision) •

Parental deviance • Maternal depression associated with delinquency (might involve lack of supervision) • Alcoholism and substance abuse are associated with neglect, lack of supervision and delinquency

Broken homes

Broken homes