- Slides: 23
Correcting Sentence Fragments What is a sentence fragment? Correcting phrase fragments Correcting subordinate-clause fragments Using fragments for stylistic effect Review A Review B
What is a sentence fragment? Not all “sentences” are created equal. Look at the following two groups of words: Fragment The herd stampeded. Frightened by by by noise. They both begin with a capital. They both end with a period. BUT The second does not express a complete thought. It is a sentence fragment.
What is a sentence fragment? A sentence fragment does not have all the basic parts of a complete sentence. Fragments do not express a complete thought and are missing important information. EXAMPLES Has horns shaped like corkscrews. t su o N The kudu, a type of antelope, in Africa. c bje b No r ve While it stands five feet high at the shoulder. t a te o N le p m ht co oug th
What is a sentence fragment? To identify sentence fragments, use a simple test: 1. Does the group of words have a subject? 2. Does it have a verb? 3. Does it express a complete thought? If the answer to any of these questions is no, you have a fragment.
What is a sentence fragment? Apply the test to the following group of words: My brother is is coming home today. 1. Does the group of words have a subject? YES 2. Does it have a verb? YES 3. Does it express a complete thought? YES Sentence
What is a sentence fragment? Apply the test to the following group of words: Whenever II see aa rainbow. Fragment 1. Does the group of words have a subject? YES 2. Does it have a verb? YES 3. Does it express a complete thought? NO What happens whenever you see a rainbow?
What is a sentence fragment? On Your Own Determine whether each group of words is a fragment or a complete sentence. If the item is a complete sentence, write C. If a subject is missing, write S. If a verb is missing, write V. If the item has a subject and a verb but expresses an incomplete thought, write I. ___ 1. Nina Otero-Warren excelled as an educator, writer, and public official. ___ 2. Was an important influence in her life. ___ 3. Descended from a long line of political leaders. ___ 4. She was one of the first Mexican-American women to hold important public posts in New Mexico. [End of Section]
Correcting phrase fragments A phrase is a group of words that does not have both a subject and a verb. By itself a phrase is a fragment. Imagine: ? Your best friend walks in and says. . . ? During third period! ? then leaves! What did she mean, “During third period”? A phrase does not make sense by itself.
Correcting phrase fragments Four kinds of phrases are often mistaken for sentences: • Verbal phrases Taking photographs. • Appositive phrases A well-known peak. • Prepositional phrases In a remote valley. • Absolute phrases The extra prints having been made.
Correcting phrase fragments There are two ways to fix a phrase fragment: Strategy 1: Add words to form a complete sentence. • Verbal phrases Taking I enjoyphotographs. taking photographs. • Appositive phrases A The well-known Matterhorn, peak. a well-known peak, awed me.
Correcting phrase fragments Strategy 1: Add words to form a complete sentence (continued). • Prepositional phrases This In a remote picturevalley. shows a village in a remote valley. • Absolute phrases The extra prints having been made. I framed a copy for made, each of my friends.
Correcting phrase fragments Strategy 2: Combine the fragment with a sentence. • Verbal phrases I spent my vacation. taking Takingphotographs. I hiked photographs, Taking up the trail. Taking I hikedphotographs. up the trail. • Appositive phrases That is the Matterhorn, Matterhorn. A a well-known peak. The Matterhorn, Matterhorn looms a well-known over thepeak, village. looms A well -known over thepeak. village.
Correcting phrase fragments Strategy 2: Combine the fragment with a sentence (continued). • Prepositional phrases We visited a beautiful village. in Inaaremotevalley. The village was situated between in a remote twovalley mountains. between two. Inmountains. a remote valley. • Absolute phrases IThe framed extrathem copies ashaving presents been formade, my friends. I framed The extra as them copies presents having forbeen my friends. made.
Correcting phrase fragments On Your Own Rewrite the following paragraph to correct phrase fragments. Change capitalization and punctuation wherever necessary. Until the early part of the twentieth century. The blacksmith’s shop was a familiar sight in the United States. Shoeing horses and making metal wagon parts. Also called a smithy. The blacksmith’s shop was often a community meeting place. [End of Section]
Correcting subordinate-clause fragments A clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb. An independent clause (or main clause) expresses a complete thought and can stand by itself as a sentence. Subject Verb A barometermeasuresthe thepressureofofthe theatmosphere.
Correcting subordinate-clause fragments A subordinate clause (or dependent clause) cannot stand by itself as a sentence. A subordinate clause has a subject and a verb but does not express a complete thought. Subject Verb when the game finally ended Subject Verb whoscored who scoredthe thewinningrun run
Correcting subordinate-clause fragments Subordinate clause fragments suggest questions that they do not answer. To whom is this When the game finally ended. Who scored the winning run. Although he is a sophomore. statement referring? What happened when It What happened would be complete if it the game finally although he is a ended with a question ended? sophomore? mark.
Correcting subordinate-clause fragments There are two ways to fix a subordinate clause fragment: Strategy 1: Add words to form a complete sentence. Who He was scored the batter the winning who scored run. the winning run. Strategy 2: Combine the fragment with a sentence. Although he is a sophomore, He he is our best pitcher.
Correcting subordinate-clause fragments On Your Own Rewrite the following paragraph to correct subordinate clause fragments. Change capitalization and punctuation wherever necessary. Sea urchins have long, movable spines. Which they use to push themselves across the ocean floor. Sea urchins can be eaten in sushi. After they have been harvested and carefully prepared. They may look odd, but they taste delicious! [End of Section]
Using fragments for stylistic effect By itself a sentence fragment does not express a complete thought. Slamming The endlessdown road. A the pitiless hoodsun. of the Notcar, a scrap he of turned shade into sight. survey the landscape. The endless road. A pitiless sun. Not a scrap of shade in sight. However, an experienced writer may use a fragment for effect if it is clearly related to a nearby sentence. [End of Section]
Review A Identify each fragment as a phrase (P) or a subordinate clause (S). Then, add words to make it a complete sentence. ___ 1. Waving from the car window. ___ 2. That we should practice more. ___ 3. To prepare the garden. ___ 4. In addition to swimming and soccer. ___ 5. When we lived in Milwaukee. [End of Section]
Review B Revise the fragments in the following paragraph. Change capitalization and punctuation wherever necessary. Amy Tan is a Chinese-American author. Who writes about the lives of second-generation Chinese Americans. Writing with both humor and insight. Tan accurately portrays family relationships. After working as a freelance business writer. Tan decided to try writing short stories. Once her first novel, The Joy Luck Club, was published. She became an instant celebrity. [End of Section]