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Cordillera Administrative Region
Island group Luzon Regional center Baguio City Total Area 19, 294 km 2 (7, 449. 5 sq mi) Total Population 1, 520, 743 Provinces 6 Cities 2 Municipalities 75 Barangays 1, 176 Languages Ilocano, Ibaloi, Kankanaey, Kalanguya, Kalinga, Ifugao, Itneg, Isneg, Pangasinan, Tagalog, English. .
Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR) Is a region in the Philippines composed of the provinces of Abra, Apayao, Benguet, Ifugao, Kalinga and Mountain Province, as well as Baguio City, the regional center. The Cordillera Administrative Region encompasses most of the areas within the Cordillera Central mountains of Luzon, the largest mountain range in the country. It is the country's only land-locked region. The region is home to numerous indigenous tribes collectively called the Igorot.
Abra is a landlocked province of the Philippines in the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon. Its capital is Bangued, and it borders Ilocos Norte and Apayao on the north, Ilocos Sur and Mountain Province on the south, Ilocos Norte and Ilocos Sur on the west, and Kalinga, and Apayao on the east. Abra is hemmed in by the towering mountain ranges of the Ilocos in the west and the Cordillera Central in the east. It has an extremely rugged terrain, with mountains and hills rising along its perimeter and interior. The plains are drained by the Abra River, which flows northward from Mt. Data in the Mountain Province.
Apayao is a landlocked province of the Philippines in the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon. Its capital town is Kabugao. Even during pre-historic time when the provice was still the old Mountain Province, Kabugao was already the recognized as the capital of then sub-province of Apayao. It borders Cagayan to the north and east, Abra and Ilocos Norte to the west, and Kalinga to the south. Prior to 1995, Kalinga and Apayao comprised a single province named Kalinga-Apayao, until they were split into two to better service the needs of individual
Benguet is a landlocked province of the Philippines in the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon. Its capital is La Trinidad and borders, clockwise from the south, Pangasinan, La Union, Ilocos Sur, Mountain Province, Ifugao, and Nueva Vizcaya. Baguio, a popular tourist destination in the country, is located in the interior of the province, however, the city is independent of the province.
Ifugao is a landlocked province of the Philippines in the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon. The province of Ifugao is located in a mountainous region characterized by rugged terrain, river valleys, and massive forests. Its capital is Lagawe and borders Benguet to the west, Mountain Province to the north, Isabela to the east, and Nueva Vizcaya to the south. It is named after the term "i-pugo" which means "i" (from/people) and "pugo" (hill), thus people of the hill.
Kalinga is a landlocked province of the Philippines in the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon. Its capital is Tabuk and borders Mountain Province to the south, Abra to the west, Isabela to the east, Cagayan to the northeast, and Apayao to the north. Prior to 1995, Kalinga and Apayao used to be a single province named Kalinga-Apayao, until they were split into two to better service the needs of individual native tribes in the provinces.
Mountain Province is a landlocked province of the Philippines in the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon. Its capital is Bontoc and borders, clockwise from the south, Ifugao, Benguet, Ilocos Sur, Abra, Kalinga, and Isabela. Mountain Province is sometimes incorrectly named Mountain in some foreign references. The name is also incorrectly shortened by locals to Mt. Province, which in turn is read by native Anglophones as "Mount Province". The province was named so for being in the Cordillera Central mountain range found in the upper realms of Luzon island.
Baguio is a highly urbanized city located in northern Luzon island in the Philippines. The city has become the center of business and commerce as well as the center of education in the entire Northern Luzon thereby becoming the seat of government of the Cordillera Administrative Region. Baguio City was established by Americans in 1900 at the site of an Ibaloi village known as Kafagway. It's name was derived from the word bagiw in Ibaloi, the indigenous language of the Benguet Region, meaning 'moss'.
Distinguished Characteristics ➢ the world-famous Banaue Rice Terraces in the province of Ifugao. The Philippines considers Banaue Rice Terraces as its "Eighth Wonder of the World. " The Banaue terraces, ancient sprawling man-made structures from 2, 000 to 6, 000 years old. Sumaguing Cave in Sagada and the mummy caves of Benguet and Mt. Province.
Distinguished Characteristics ➢ There are four National Parks: Cassamata Hill, Mount Pulag, the highest mountain in Luzon, and second highest mountain in the Philippines, following Mount Apo of Davao, with an elevation of 2, 922 meters above mean sea level, Mt. Data, and Balbalasang Balbalan, located in the province of Kalinga also offers world-class white water rafting along the Chico River.
Description of Literary Works
Cordillera Administrative Region like any other regions in the Philippines is rich in literary works which reflects their tradition, cultures and beliefs. This was started by different tribes that scattered in different parts of the regions. Although they have different language spoken still they’re able to express their own culture, tradition and beliefs which reflect in their literary works.
Ibaloy literature like other tribes has an abundance of prose narratives cosmological myths, origin myths, trickster tales, fables and tales reflecting their beliefs and customs. Origin myths include those about the origin of the Ibaloy culture ceremonies and animals. They have three famous literary works. The first one was the Enmity of the people in the sky world and those of the underworld, this was their own version of how first people on earth was created which is according to their myth the sun created the earth to stand between two warring world but when they come to earth to hunt they have a ragging battle against the deer and left dead a man and a woman and they recovered, married and had many children.
The second one is the sky world obtained rice from maseken of the underworld which was about punishing a person for his negligence. When Kabunayan threw a spear at a deer that jumped in the black water, he hit the roof of Maseken’s house instead and when he pulled up the spear, there was a stalk of rice attached to it. A low voice from the house under the water accused him of stealing Maseken’s palay and after hearing Kabunayan’s explanation for the transgression he punished him and instructed to plant in the field and invoked his name at every harvest time.
The next one was the Bindayan Ceremony which reflects their ritual practices that when the Buguias warriors already killed the snakes head with the help of mambunung who performed sagausau to takes away the soul of the enemy to make it sleep soundly, the victorious warriors stopped several times to dance around the snakes heads.
Isneg have stories and fables, some of them are humorous and entertaining which explain events and phenomena, relationship between people and their surroundings. One of the famous literary works of them was The Judge and The Fly which is humorous and entertaining.
The story was about the man who had a cow, one evening he united the cow and brought herto gaze on the Kappay grass but early next morning he went to see his cow only to find her dead on the closer look, he saw a dead and squashed fly on the body of his cow. He reported the matter to the judge who ruled; that hence forth, flies could be killed anytime. One day he went for a walk, he passed by the house of the judge who happened to be sittingon a bench in front of his house, he saw a fly on the forehead of the judge. He was mad at the sight because that fly reminded him of his cow’s dead body. He looked around for a piece of kindling wood and finding one, he jumped in front of the judge and clubbed the fly. The fly died but the judge’s head was severely injured. An investigation was conducted but because the judge had said no person could be imprisoned if he/she killed a fly, the man was not imprisoned.
The Tingguian, a group of pagan people inhabiting the interior hills of Abra, have their own story of the Great Deluge. The tragic incident began with the abduction of Humitau, a sea maiden guard of Taumari-u, lord of the sea by Aponi-talau. One day, Aponi- talau, a god hero of the Tingguian to the low lands. He wandered aimlessly through the plains until he reached the seashore and because he’s unable to resist the beauty of the dancing wavelets, he made a rattan raft and rowed seaward.
When, he came to the edge of the world. Their in the place were the sea and the sky meet, Aponi-talau saw a towering rock, home of Taumari-u, lord of the sea. It was guarded by nine beautiful daughters of the seaweeds, gathering his courage, the Tingguian warrior went nearer the palace gates and he inquired what place it was, the maiden guards laughed at him and lured him further inside the palace walls. This made him very angry. Taking his magic hook, he lashed at the unsuspecting maidens. The hook hit the youngest and the most beautiful of them, Humitau.
And although she gave a loud and piersing scream and struggle desprately to free herself, the magic oil which the mountain lord had placed at the tip of hook weaked her blood and soon she was helpless. Aponi-tolau hurriedlypicked up the concious body of the sea maiden, loaded it on his rattan raft and rowed shoreward. Shortly after the Tingguianhero had left the bauwi gates, Taumari-u went out of his abode to see what the commoion was all about. But he was too late. In his rage he summoned the waves and the tunas of the sea and orderd them to bring back the intruder but Aponi-talau was helped by his mother, Langan of Kadalayapan, mistess of the wind and rain.
She immediately sent down strong winds to pull Aponi-talau ashore and despite rthe fury of the waves and the effort of the tunas, the Tingguian warrior was able to reach the shore unharmed. Despite his anger, the water lord took pity upon his favorite Humitau. So, she called back the water and waves. But he promised that henceforth he would sink men’s boats and down passengers until Aponi-talau’s crime would be appeased. The characteristics of the Tigguian people revealed in the trait of Aponi-talao were bravery, courageous and strong. Also it was reflected that they used to bellieve in gods and goddesses.
The Ifugao have riddles which serve to entertain and at the same time educate the young. Ifugao proverbs are used to give advice to the young. Ifugao also hav tales and epics. Epics are chanted romances recounting the origin of people, the life and adventure of Ifugao hero. The Hudhud is chanted while working in the field of during funeral rites. The Hudhud recognize as a “Masterpiece of Oral and intangible Heritage of Humanity”.
Hudhud Hi Aliguyon was about the brave warrior named Aliguyon. He was born in the village called Hannanga. His parents was Amtalao and dumulao. He was an intelligent, eager young man who wanted to learned many useful things from his father. He learned how to fight well and chant a few magic spells. Evenas a child, he was a leader. Upon leaving childhood, He gather forces to fight against his father’s enemy, who was Pangaiwan of the village of Daligdigan. But his challenge was not answered personally. Instead, he faced Pangaiwan’s son, Pumbakhayon was just a skilled in arts of war and magic as Aliguyon.
The two of them battledeach other for three years, and neither of them show sighns of defeat. Their battle was a tedious one, and has been said that they both used only one spear. Aliguyon had thrown a spear to his opponent at the start of their match, but the fair Pumbakhayon threw the spear back to Aliguyon, who picked it just as neatly from the air. And in the end they came to respect each other’s talents and they stopped fighting. Hudhud Hi Aliguyon shows many of the characterictics and traits of Ifugaos that they are brave, strong and also fair in battles that they kniw how to forgive and offer frienship in their enemies which is a good lesson to learn.
Bontoc social literature aims to communicate ideas or attitude to others at a certain social occassions. Bontaoc literature expresses the Bontoc world view and reflects their collective history. This consist of riddles, proverbs, aphorisms, songs, tales, legends and myths. Lumawig: Bontos’s god and culture hero. The most important myths are the Oggood, which is the narratives concerning Lumawig. He rewards good and formed wonders to teach ethical norms. He changed his own selfish father-in-law into a rock with water gushing forth from it’s anus, because the olderman refused to stand in kline for a drink of water that Lumawig had caused to spring fron the rock. In Bontoc town is tiny garden patch that is tended by special priest irrigated by a constant spring; this is where lumawig first bought Agrculture to Bontoc.
The Kankanay have rich collection of riddles and epics. They have sudsud (short talks) which are recounted in gatherings of adults or when they are relaxing. In Vanoverbergh’s study of Kankanay tales, the following appears to be main contenent of the stories; marriage and family life, social customs and traditions, religious beliefs and practices, and tales of magic and imagination. Here are two short tales recorded by Dianna Eugenio. The first was about how the thunder and the lightning came to be. The other short tale was the origin of the Human Rice which according to them people was created by gods came to earth.
Kalinga literature consist of riddles, legends, chanted or sung myths, epics of ballads. Ulalim are ballads that anrrate the heroic exploits of culture heroes which also emphasize the bravery and pride of the kaliga people. Ulalim is the epic of the kalionga, a mountain tribe in Luzon. The term Ulalim refers to the songs sung by bards called man-ullalim, which deals with a hero’s exploits, usually involving kayaw, headhunting raids. Like mist epics, the songs future romance and magic and extol bravery.
Their famous literary works are the Magical Birth of Banna where in maiden named Dinanaw chew a betel nut and becomes pregnant. Three years later she gave birth to Banna and his friends tells hinm that he son of the prisoner Dulliyaw but his mother denies it. Another 3 years pass and Banna kills Dulaw but his companion tell him that Dullilaw is his father. Father and son return to mgobay and his mother accept Dulliyaw’s offer of betel nut and they rejoice. This literary work likethe other literary works of kalinga featured Banna who represents people of kalinga or the kalinga tribe. Banna’s characteristicsflects those of kalinga which is strong and courageous.
Our Regional Heritage: Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR) The Cordilleras Provinces Capital Abra Bangued Apayao Kabugao Benguet La Trinidad Ifugao Lagawe Kalinga Tabuki Mt. Province Bontoc
The Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR) created by the former President Corazon Aquino in 1987 is composed of six(6) provinces (Abra, Apayao, Benguet, Kalinga, Ifugao, and Mountain province). The National Economical and Development Authority (NEDA) described the region as a “landlocked region” located in northern central portion of Luzon. With a mountainous topography, it is basically cold and windy almost all year round. The people in this region are called “Cordillerans. ” The term encompasses the aborigines or the natives of the mountains called “Igorots. ” The Igorots are blessed with very rich and fertile land good for planting almost all kinds of fruit-bearing trees, vegetables such as cabbage, potatoes, carrots, lettuce, beans, etc. From beneath the ground comes precious stones mined and transformed into jewels and machine parts: gold, silver, copper, etc. As the regions natural wealth enriches its people, so does its culture makes its people proud and unique. Tribal dances such as the CAÑAO: songs and chants such as the Salidumay and epics like Hudhud have invited the curious and adventurous spirits of people from elsewhere.
Its oral literary tradition (spoken tradition from the Latin word or or os meaning “mouth” and tradition meaning “action of handling over”) is rich, though, it has remained untapped for a long period of time. Folks, tales, fables, proverbs, riddles, and songs abound are now being brought our to the open for the entire Philippines to study and appreciate. The following songs, riddles, proverbs, and chants transmitted by word of mouth capture the very tradition of the ethnic group called “Igorots. ” Contemporary singers have tried to preserve songs for courtship, harvest, wedding, burial, and lang-aya (kankanaey term) and adivay (ibaloi term) for socialization and culture festival. Local contemporary folk singers include, Joel Tingbaoen, Bryan Aliping, Rod Danggol, Morr Tadeo, and Listo Langbis. And in the advent of Christianity, songs such as “Layad Nan Likatan, ” “Si Ama and Chaya, ” “Istoryan San Pablo, ” “No Semsemken Mi, ” and “Egtayo Panshanagan” have been part of the collection of Cordillera songs.
Geographic location The Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR) is bounded on the north by the province of Cagayan, on the west by Ilocos Norte and Ilocos Sur, on the east by Isabela and in the south by the province of Pangasinan and Nueva Vizcaya.
Riddles Humans have always been fascinated by puzzles as a reflection of the quality that distinguished him from lower forms of creation. One of the literary forms which has become popular among the writers of Classical Greece is the so called riddle. It is puzzling question designed as a mental challenge. People all over the global have their own sets of riddles. In the Philippines, riddles are often raised during weddings, burials, and reunions. It is used to entertain people and at the same time cut the boredom in the assembly. In the Mountain Province and some other parts of the Cordillera, most riddles resolve around themes of harvest, death, love and household chores.
Ang CAÑAO Ang salitang keh-dota o canao ay nagmula sa salitang Nabaloy (Ibaloi) na ang ibig sabihin sa ingles ay “to burn to feast. ” Ang canao ay isang tradisyon (pawala na sa kasalukuyang panahon) para sa mga Ibaloi at Kankanaey sa Benguet. Ito ay isang pistang nangangailangan ng hayop na kakatayin at itoy binubuo ng dalawampung katao o higit pa depende sa antas ng pamumuhay at uri ng canao na gaganapin. Ito’y tumatagal ng siang araw o isang lingo(pinakamahaba na ‘yong katorseng araw) depende uli sa antas at kakayahan ng pamilya na maghahandog nito.
Ang keshel (baboy) ang paniniwalang karapatdapat na alay dahil ito’y isang sagradong hayop kaysa sa ibang hayop. Ginaganap ito sa mga okasyong tulad ng anihan, binyag, patanim, pagpapagaling sa may sakit, paghingi ng ulan at pagpapatigil sa bagyo.
MGA URI NG CAÑAO
Ang Kape (KAFFI) Isang uri ito ng canao na isinasagawa kung may naitayong bagong bahay o pagkatapos ng ilang araw pagkalibing sa yumaong kamag-anak o nananaginip ang pamilya na may darating na biyaya sa kanila.
Ang Kayed Ito ay boluntaryo o sapilitang isinasagawa. Kung ang isang mayaman ay nagnanais na mapanatili ang pagkapuno sa baryo at ang paggalang ng mga tao, isinasagawa ang “kayed”.
Ang Sabeng (Sab-Ong) Isinasagawa ito ng bagong mag-asawa subalit dahilan sa kakapusan sa salapi, ang mayayaman lang nakakagawa nito.
Ang Keshaw ay salitang Ibaloi na ang ibig sabihin ay “paghingi. ” Ginaganap ang canao na ito sa pamilyang may mga nadapuan ng sakit na ayun sa mga mambonong ay dala ito ng mga kehdaring (mga kaluluwa ng namatay na kamaganak, o yaong di nakakita). Ibig sabihin nakakalimutan na ng pamilya ang mga namatay na kamag-anak kaya para mapaalalahanan ang mga buhay na kamag-anak, dadapuan ang isang miyembro ng isang sakit. At eto nga ay gagaling sa pamamagitan ng pag-alay ng keshaw. Hindi kailangang magarbo eto, maaring katamtamanng laki ng baboy at puwedeng samahan ng isa o dalawang aso.
Ang Pechit (PEH-SHIT) Ito ang pinakamataas na uri ng canao. Tumatagal ng tatlo hanggang apat na araw.
San Ba-ey Da By Bryan Aliping II No laydem ay mangila, isanan baey da ama Immeyak ed baey yo inapoy san insango yo , Anusam ta Mandan ka isay agew ya kagedwa Pati pay san isida yo, yan pinirito ay pato Isnan ba-ey da ama, adi kan kadisdismaya Isnan baey da amam, sinisinyakal da nan daanan Ta ep-epat san tukod na, ngem three stories ay kananda Ngem san enta nanpasyaran mendukdukog si inam No ilam san agdan, kawayan ay inamag da San ngil-ak ken badangan Mandukog yan kuma-an San nagil-ak ken amam, man-annidon day-uwan Tay magay pahtaloon na ngeni adu-ando san wanes na Kanak en ennak datngan ngusiyek duwan kuma-an No ilam pay si Ina, adi kan kadisdismaya ILaek san inaunam, manbalbalsig san arubayan Tay maiwed sapatos na ngem nadiwal san dapan na Kanak en emak badangan, nanggusiyek duwan kuma-an Inmey ta ed ba-ey mi, wat togtogi di insango mi Adiyak makabadan gaget yo ay sin pangabong Pati pay san isida mi yan ug-ugot di sayote Adiyak makabadang gaget yo ay dadama San pangan mi nilaga ay kawayan Kedeng et baw adi, san man arem ay napubri
Dangdang-Ay (Kalinga) Inneyam de oddiya Kanaranto kan sika Patimoy ka’d din guinak ay totowaa. Sisitum somsomokko Mapadas nandom-domno Maed inyak indom no adisika. Awad ossan sabsabong Estay naataatan Elamhad no lomsaka domdo manak Maypay todan sabsabong Amyadongok kan sika Adina makibkibra obobongaak.
Hud-Hud(Ifugao Epic) ‘Hudhud, ’ is one of the earliest epics ever written in the Philippines. It was believed to have originally been written in an ancient Philippine script called ‘Alibata, ’ and then later on translated, upon discovery, into Tagalog (Filipino). The ‘Hudhud’ was a powerful narrative, recounting the story of heroes with god-like abilities. Aliguyan was the name of ‘Hudhud’s primary hero. Although not as much famous as the Ilocos region’s ‘Biag ni Lamang’ (Life of Lam-ang), or the world-famous Beowulf, the Ifugao epic ‘Hudhud, ’ continues to become a favorite among students or researchers of Philippine literature. The reason is because it illustrates some very important lessons – the evils and foolishness of warfare, and, the goodness and advantages of upholding peace.
Hud-Hud(story summary) Long had there been conflict between the two tribes that lived in the land of Ifugao. One tribe was ruled by Antalao, and his son Aliguyan; and the rival tribe was ruled by Pangaiwan, with his son Pumbakhayon. The conflict between the two tribes halted for some time, but once, Aliguyan decided to continue his battle with his opponent Pumbakhayon. Aliguyan prayed to the rooster, and to the Idao bird, which gave him a sign that he made the right decision. Aliguyan, with his companions then, proceeded to the plains of Daligdigan. There, he shouted, urging Pumbakhayon to do battle with him. Pumbakhayon instantly accepted the challenge. They agreed to meet at a set date and time, and they would fight to the death. When Pumbakhayon went home to prepare for the battle, unknowingly just like what Aliguyan did, Pumbakhayon prayed to the rooster and the Idao bird. And the two heroes battled in the fields. They possessed equal strength and cleverness in doing battle. The battle was amazing. Even the ladies applauded. In the middle of the fight, Dangunay, Pumbakhayon’s mother, arrived with Pumbakhayon’s sister Bugan. Dangunay advised to stop the fight since it was obvious that the two heroes were just equally brave. But the battle between Aliguyan and Pumbakhayon continued. It continued and lasted until one and a half year, when, Aliguyan decided to visit his home. He was greeted with a celebration; but a celebration that did not last for long, because Pumbakhayon followed Aliguyan and their battle continued.
Just like their previous battles, Aliguyan and Pumbakhayon’s fight continued to be in the level field. Aliguyan’s mother, Dumalao, arrived with Aliguyan’s sister Aginaya. Just like what Pumbakhayon’s mother advised, Dumalao asserted to stop the fight since it was obvious that the two heroes were just equal in strength and cleverness. But the battle between Aliguyan and Pumbakhayon continued. Their battle became well known throughout the land of Ifugao. News of the battle reached Daulayan, steadfast suitor of Pumbakhayon’s sister Bugan. But Daulayan received a news that Pumbakhayon, his would-be brother-inlaw, was defeated and killed by Aliguyan. Daulayan decided to take revenge, but was only surprised to see that Pumbakhayon was still alive. Nonetheless, Daulayan still challenged Aliguyan. And Daulayan was defeated by Aliguyan. Pumbakhayon declared that Daulayan’s loss was a great shame. Pumbakhayon would not let him marry his sister Bugan, and he announced that the rightful man to receive his sister’s hand in marriage was no one else but Aliguyan. There was great joy and festivity. The two opposing tribes achieved peace. Aliguyan married Pumbakhayon’s sister Bugan, and when Aliguyan took Pumbakhayon with him to his home tribe, Pumbakhayon met Aliguyan’s sister Aginaya. And their hearts were in agreement. Pumbakhayon took Aginaya to his home tribe and married. Since then, there had been peace and joy between the two tribes of Aliguyan and Pumbakhayon. Both tribes became known as great and honorable
The Ifugao EPIC “HUDHUD”, Philippines… The UNESCO World Heritage List has recognized the Ifugao epic “”HUDHUD, ”" citing it as among the “”Masterpieces of the oral and intangible heritage of the humanity. ”" The HUDHUD Epic is the only Southeast Asian Cultural Piece selected in the UNESCO list. This was the first time that the UNESCO gave the awards. It was the second time that UNESCO honored Ifugao, after the province’s famous rice terraces was included among UNESCO’s World Heritage List in 1995. The HUDHUD, once chanted, will go on for two to three days. The epic is chanted by Ifugao women, usually at harvest time, funeral wakes, and wedding time. There used to be many versions of the HUDHUD but the advent of Catholicism in the province has helped dilute this heritage. The late anthropologist Fr. Francis Lambrecht, CICM brought HUDHUD to the international scene, which he claims has been sung by generations of Ifugaos since the late 17 th century and still is a central part of the Ifugao life.
The Moon and the Sun-Tingguian Folk Tale (Abra) In the olden days, like the moon, the sun also has the star children which were yellowish in color, very bright, and very hot. The star children of the moon, however, were reddish and cool. The moon was scared that this stars would wither and die if they play with the star children of the sun. The moon suggested to the sun that they kill theur children who were crowding the heaven with their number. When the sun had killed his children, the moon merely hid behind the dark clouds. In the evening, when the clouds faded, the moon stars appeared. This angered the sun so he gave chase to the moon. Thus when he overtakes the moon, we have the so-called eclipse. Every morning, the sun kills the moon stars that he catches. Until now, this chase continues and because the moon still continues to give birth to stars, these mooon stars are still around.
Wedding Dance By Amador Daguio Awiyao reached for the upper horizontal log which served as the edge of the headhigh threshold. Clinging to the log, he lifted himself with one bound that carried him across to the narrow door. He slid back the cover, stepped inside, then pushed the cover back in place. After some moments during which he seemed to wait, he talked to the listening darkness. "I'm sorry this had to be done. I am really sorry. But neither of us can help it. " The sound of the gangsas beat through the walls of the dark house like muffled roars of falling waters. The woman who had moved with a start when the sliding door opened had been hearing the gangsas for she did not know how long. There was a sudden rush of fire in her. She gave no sign that she heard Awiyao, but continued to sit unmoving in the darkness. But Awiyao knew that she heard him and his heart pitied her. He crawled on all fours to the middle of the room; he knew exactly where the stove was. With bare fingers he stirred the covered smoldering embers, and blew into the stove. When the coals began to glow, Awiyao put pieces of pine on them, then full round logs as his arms. The room brightened. "Why don't you go out, " he said, "and join the dancing women? " He felt a pang inside him, because what he said was really not the right thing to say and because the woman did not stir. "You should join the dancers, " he said, "as if--as if nothing had happened. " He looked at the woman huddled in a corner of the room, leaning against the wall. The stove fire played with strange moving shadows and lights upon her face. She was partly sullen, but her sullenness was not because of anger or hate. "Go out--go out and dance. If you really don't hate me for this separation, go out and dance. One of the men will see you dance well; he will like your dancing, he will marry you. Who knows but that, with him, you will be luckier than you were with me. "
"I don't want any man, " she said sharply. "I don't want any other man. " He felt relieved that at least she talked: "You know very well that I won't want any other woman either. You know that, don't you? Lumnay, you know it, don't you? " She did not answer him. "You know it Lumnay, don't you? " he repeated. "Yes, I know, " she said weakly. "It is not my fault, " he said, feeling relieved. "You cannot blame me; I have been a good husband to you. " "Neither can you blame me, " she said. She seemed about to cry. "No, you have been very good to me. You have been a good wife. I have nothing to say against you. " He set some of the burning wood in place. "It's only that a man must have a child. Seven harvests is just too long to wait. Yes, we have waited too long. We should have another chance before it is too late for both of us. " This time the woman stirred, stretched her right leg out and bent her left leg in. She wound the blanket more snugly around herself. "You know that I have done my best, " she said. "I have prayed to Kabunyan much. I have sacrificed many chickens in my prayers. " "Yes, I know. " "You remember how angry you were once when you came home from your work in the terrace because I butchered one of our pigs without your permission? I did it to appease Kabunyan, because, like you, I wanted to have a child. But what could I do? "
"Kabunyan does not see fit for us to have a child, " he said. He stirred the fire. The spark rose through the crackles of the flames. The smoke and soot went up the ceiling. Lumnay looked down and unconsciously started to pull at the rattan that kept the split bamboo flooring in place. She tugged at the rattan flooring. Each time she did this the split bamboo went up and came down with a slight rattle. The gong of the dancers clamorously called in her care through the walls. Awiyao went to the corner where Lumnay sat, paused before her, looked at her bronzed and sturdy face, then turned to where the jars of water stood piled one over the other. Awiyao took a coconut cup and dipped it in the top jar and drank. Lumnay had filled the jars from the mountain creek early that evening. "I came home, " he said. "Because I did not find you among the dancers. Of course, I am not forcing you to come, if you don't want to join my wedding ceremony. I came to tell you that Madulimay, although I am marrying her, can never become as good as you are. She is not as strong in planting beans, not as fast in cleaning water jars, not as good keeping a house clean. You are one of the best wives in the whole village. " "That has not done me any good, has it? " She said. She looked at him lovingly. She almost seemed to smile. He put the coconut cup aside on the floor and came closer to her. He held her face between his hands and looked longingly at her beauty. But her eyes looked away. Never again would he hold her face. The next day she would not be his any more. She would go back to her parents. He let go of her face, and she bent to the floor again and looked at her fingers as they tugged softly at the split bamboo floor. "This house is yours, " he said. "I built it for you. Make it your own, live in it as long as you wish. I will build another house for Madulimay. " "I have no need for a house, " she said slowly. "I'll go to my own house. My parents are old. They will need help in the planting of the beans, in the pounding of the rice. " "I will give you the field that I dug out of the mountains during the first year of our marriage, " he said. "You know I did it for you. You helped me to make it for the two of us. " "I have no use for any field, " she said. He looked at her, then turned away, and became silent. They were silent for a time. "Go back to the dance, " she said finally. "It is not right for you to be here. They will wonder where you are, and Madulimay will not feel good. Go back to the dance. "
"I would feel better if you could come, and dance---for the last time. The gangsas are playing. " "You know that I cannot. " "Lumnay, " he said tenderly. "Lumnay, if I did this it is because of my need for a child. You know that life is not worth living without a child. The man have mocked me behind my back. You know that. " "I know it, " he said. "I will pray that Kabunyan will bless you and Madulimay. " She bit her lips now, then shook her head wildly, and sobbed. She thought of the seven harvests that had passed, the high hopes they had in the beginning of their new life, the day he took her away from her parents across the roaring river, on the other side of the mountain, the trip up the trail which they had to climb, the steep canyon which they had to cross. The waters boiled in her mind in forms of white and jade and roaring silver; the waters tolled and growled, resounded in thunderous echoes through the walls of the stiff cliffs; they were far away now from somewhere on the tops of the other ranges, and they had looked carefully at the buttresses of rocks they had to step on---a slip would have meant death. They both drank of the water then rested on the other bank before they made the final climb to the other side of the mountain. She looked at his face with the fire playing upon his features---hard and strong, and kind. He had a sense of lightness in his way of saying things which often made her and the village people laugh. How proud she had been of his humor. The muscles where taut and firm, bronze and compact in their hold upon his skull---how frank his bright eyes were. She looked at his body the carved out of the mountains five fields for her; his wide and supple torso heaved as if a slab of shining lumber were heaving; his arms and legs flowed down in fluent muscles--he was strong and for that she had lost him. She flung herself upon his knees and clung to them. "Awiyao, my husband, " she cried. "I did everything to have a child, " she said passionately in a hoarse whisper. "Look at me, " she cried. "Look at my body. Then it was full of promise. It could dance; it could work fast in the fields; it could climb the mountains fast. Even now it is firm, full. But, Awiyao, I am useless. I must die. " "It will not be right to die, " he said, gathering her in his arms. Her whole warm naked breast quivered against his own; she clung now to his neck, and her hand lay upon his right shoulder; her hair flowed down in cascades of gleaming darkness.
"I don't care about the fields, " she said. "I don't care about the house. I don't care for anything but you. I'll have no other man. " "Then you'll always be fruitless. " "I'll go back to my father, I'll die. " "Then you hate me, " he said. "If you die it means you hate me. You do not want me to have a child. You do not want my name to live on in our tribe. " She was silent. "If I do not try a second time, " he explained, "it means I'll die. Nobody will get the fields I have carved out of the mountains; nobody will come after me. " "If you fail--if you fail this second time--" she said thoughtfully. The voice was a shudder. "No--no, I don't want you to fail. " "If I fail, " he said, "I'll come back to you. Then both of us will die together. Both of us will vanish from the life of our tribe. " The gongs thundered through the walls of their house, sonorous and faraway. "I'll keep my beads, " she said. "Awiyao, let me keep my beads, " she half-whispered. "You will keep the beads. They come from far-off times. My grandmother said they come from up North, from the slant-eyed people across the sea. You keep them, Lumnay. They are worth twenty fields. " "I'll keep them because they stand for the love you have for me, " she said. "I love you and have nothing to give. " She took herself away from him, for a voice was calling out to him from outside. "Awiyao! O Awiyao! They are looking for you at the dance!" "I am not in hurry. " "The elders will scold you. You had better go. " "Not until you tell me that it is all right with you. " "It is all right with me. " He clasped her hands. "I do this for the sake of the tribe, " he said.
"I know, " she said. He went to the door. "Awiyao!" He stopped as if suddenly hit by a spear. In pain he turned to her. Her face was in agony. It pained him to leave. She had been wonderful to him. What was it that made a man wish for a child? What was it in life, in the work in the field, in the planting and harvest, in the silence of the night, in the communing with husband wife, in the whole life of the tribe itself that made man wish for the laughter and speech of a child? Suppose he changed his mind? Why did the unwritten law demand, anyway, that a man, to be a man, must have a child to come after him? And if he was fruitless--but he loved Lumnay. It was like taking away of his life to leave her like this. "Awiyao, " she said, and her eyes seemed to smile in the light. "The beads!" He turned back and walked to the farthest corner of their room, to the trunk where they kept their worldly possession---his battle-ax and his spear points, her betel nut box and her beads. He dug out from the darkness the beads which had been given to him by his grandmother to give to Lumnay on the beads on, and tied them in place. The white and jade and deep orange obsidians shone in the firelight. She suddenly clung to him, clung to his neck as if she would never let him go. "Awiyao! Awiyao, it is hard!" She gasped, and she closed her eyes and huried her face in his neck. The call for him from the outside repeated; her grip loosened, and he buried out into the night. Lumnay sat for some time in the darkness. Then she went to the door and opened it. The moonlight struck her face; the moonlight spilled itself on the whole village. She could hear the throbbing of the gangsas coming to her through the caverns of the other houses. She knew that all the houses were empty that the whole tribe was at the dance. Only she was absent. And yet was she not the best dancer of the village? Did she not have the most lightness and grace? Could she not, alone among all women, dance like a bird tripping for grains on the ground, beautifully timed to the beat of the gangsas? Did not the men praise her supple body, and the women envy the way she stretched her hands like the wings of the mountain eagle now and then as she danced? How long ago did she dance at her own wedding? Tonight, all the women who counted, who once danced in her honor, were dancing now in honor of another whose only claim was that perhaps she could give her husband a child. "It is not right!" she cried. "How does she know? How can anybody know? It is not right, " she said. Suddenly she found courage. She would go to the dance. She would go to the chief of the village, to the elders, to tell them it was not right. Awiyao was hers; nobody could take him away from her. Let her be the first woman to complain, to denounce the unwritten rule that a man may take another woman. She would tell Awiyao to come back to her. He surely would relent. Was not their love as strong as the river?
She made for the other side of the village where the dancing was. There was a flaming glow over the whole place; a great bonfire was burning. The gangsas clamored more loudly now, and it seemed they were calling to her. She was near at last. She could see the dancers clearly now. The man leaped lightly with their gangsas as they circled the dancing women decked in feast garments and beads, tripping on the ground like graceful birds, following their men. Her heart warmed to the flaming call of the dance; strange heat in her blood welled up, and she started to run. But the gleaming brightness of the bonfire commanded her to stop. Did anybody see her approach? She stopped. What if somebody had seen her coming? The flames of the bonfire leaped in countless sparks which spread and rose like yellow points and died out in the night. The blaze reached out to her like a spreading radiance. She did not have the courage to break into the wedding feast. Lumnay walked away from the dancing ground, away from the village. She thought of the new clearing of beans which Awiyao and she had started to make only four moons before. She followed the trail above the village. When she came to the mountain stream she crossed it carefully. Nobody held her hand, and the stream water was very cold. The trail went up again, and she was in the moonlight shadows among the trees and shrubs. Slowly she climbed the mountain. When Lumnay reached the clearing, she cold see from where she stood the blazing bonfire at the edge of the village, where the wedding was. She could hear the far-off clamor of the gongs, still rich in their sonorousness, echoing from mountain to mountain. The sound did not mock her; they seemed to call far to her, to speak to her in the language of unspeaking love. She felt the pull of their gratitude for her sacrifice. Her heartbeat began to sound to her like many gangsas. Lumnay though of Awiyao as the Awiyao she had known long ago-- a strong, muscular boy carrying his heavy loads of fuel logs down the mountains to his home. She had met him one day as she was on her way to fill her clay jars with water. He had stopped at the spring to drink and rest; and she had made him drink the cool mountain water from her coconut shell. After that it did not take him long to decide to throw his spear on the stairs of her father's house in token on his desire to marry her. The mountain clearing was cold in the freezing moonlight. The wind began to stir the leaves of the bean plants. Lumnay looked for a big rock on which to sit down. The bean plants now surrounded her, and she was lost among them. A few more weeks, a few more months, a few more harvests---what did it matter? She would be holding the bean flowers, soft in the texture, silken almost, but moist where the dew got into them, silver to look at, silver on the light blue, blooming whiteness, when the morning comes. The stretching of the bean pods full length from the hearts of the wilting petals would go on. Lumnay's fingers moved a long, long time among the growing bean pods.
The Summary They have been married for seven harvest periods yet Awiyao and Lumnay weren't able to produce children and Awiyao badly need one to affirm his virility and to establish his place among his tribesmen so he decided to leave Lumnay and marry Madulimay. The story is set in one of the mountainous provinces in the northern Philippines on the eve of Awiyao's wedding to Madulimay, while gangsas beat and women dance to celebrate the union. Awiyao slipped away from the celebration to convince Lumnay to join the dancing women. Instead, their conversation turned to a passionate goodbye, each expressing love for the other, their speeches filled with recollection of precious memories, finding it hard to let go of one another. The climax was reached with Awiyao running, blood surging, resolved to stop the dance and complain against the tribe's culture that permits a man to marry another woman if the first wife couldn't bear him children. But suddenly she stopped and turned back, defeated. Daguio, in the story presented a clash against a basic human emotion and culture and thus established two important points: that culture transcends love and the bitter truth about the inequality of the sexes. He did not establish though that Lumnay was sterile. Awiyao could have been the one with fertility problems, who knows? Awiyao's pride forced him to leave Lumnay, no matter how he loved his wife. But if he was the one with fertility problems, would Lumnay's love be enough to take him back? On the second point, their culture permits man to leave his wife and take another woman hoping the second wife would bear him children but no such provision for women exists. And although the first wife may remarry, it would only be after husband left her. And what if, in Lumnay's second marriage, she would bear children, what of the culture now?
THANK YOU Prepared by: Arjon S. Resurreccion BSIT-3 A