Copyright 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning ALL RIGHTS

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Copyright © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 1

Copyright © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 1

Copyright © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 2

Copyright © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 2

Growth • Growth – Physical changes in the body • • Height Weight Motor

Growth • Growth – Physical changes in the body • • Height Weight Motor sensory adaptation Development of sex organs Copyright © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 3

Development • Development – Increase in mental, emotional, and social capabilities • • Intellectual

Development • Development – Increase in mental, emotional, and social capabilities • • Intellectual (cognitive) ability Variety in expression of emotions Ability to cope with complex situations Social and interpersonal skills Copyright © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 4

Key Terms • Physical – Growth of the body • Psychosocial – Psychological and

Key Terms • Physical – Growth of the body • Psychosocial – Psychological and social development • Cognitive – Intellectual processes Copyright © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 5

Key Concepts • Human needs vary throughout lifespan • Generalizations help, but they are

Key Concepts • Human needs vary throughout lifespan • Generalizations help, but they are not absolutes • Consider each patient as a unique individual Copyright © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 6

Life Stages • Time frames for studying growth and development • Start at conception

Life Stages • Time frames for studying growth and development • Start at conception and end with death • Certain changes and needs characterize each stage Copyright © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 7

Erikson • 1950 - Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development – Do not include physical

Erikson • 1950 - Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development – Do not include physical aspects – Conflicts encountered in each stage – Resolving these conflicts advances person to next stage Copyright © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 8

Erikson • Psychosocial development can be delayed if conflict not resolved • Process in

Erikson • Psychosocial development can be delayed if conflict not resolved • Process in continuous over a lifespan • Stress can cause regression to an earlier stage Copyright © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 9

Prenatal • • • Conception to birth Zygote Embryo stage Fetus Rapid physical growth

Prenatal • • • Conception to birth Zygote Embryo stage Fetus Rapid physical growth No psychosocial stage Copyright © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 10

Infancy • • • Birth to 1 -year Neonate Infant Physical growth Cognitive skills

Infancy • • • Birth to 1 -year Neonate Infant Physical growth Cognitive skills Trust versus mistrust Copyright © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 11

Toddler • • • 1 to 3 years Physical changes Motor sensory ability Cognitive

Toddler • • • 1 to 3 years Physical changes Motor sensory ability Cognitive skills Autonomy versus shame and doubt Copyright © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 12

Preschooler • • • 3 to 6 years Physical changes Motor sensory ability Cognitive

Preschooler • • • 3 to 6 years Physical changes Motor sensory ability Cognitive skills Initiative versus guilt Copyright © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 13

School-Age Child • • • 6 to 12 years Physical changes Motor sensory ability

School-Age Child • • • 6 to 12 years Physical changes Motor sensory ability Cognitive skills Industry versus inferiority Copyright © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 14

Adolescence • • • 12 -20 years Physical changes Motor sensory ability Cognitive skills

Adolescence • • • 12 -20 years Physical changes Motor sensory ability Cognitive skills Identity vs. role confusion Copyright © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 15

Young Adulthood • • • 20 s and 30 s Physical changes Motor sensory

Young Adulthood • • • 20 s and 30 s Physical changes Motor sensory ability Cognitive skills Intimacy versus isolation Copyright © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 16

Middle Adulthood • • • 40 to 65 years Physical changes Motor sensory ability

Middle Adulthood • • • 40 to 65 years Physical changes Motor sensory ability Cognitive skills Generativity versus stagnation Chronic illness more likely to appear Copyright © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 17

Later Adulthood • Young-old – 65 to 74 years • Middle-old – 75 to

Later Adulthood • Young-old – 65 to 74 years • Middle-old – 75 to 84 years • Old-old – 85 years to death Copyright © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 18

Later Adulthood • Old-old is also called frail elderly • Future trends in viewing

Later Adulthood • Old-old is also called frail elderly • Future trends in viewing and caring for later adulthood patients Copyright © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 19

Later Adulthood • • Physical changes Motor sensory ability Cognitive skills Ego integrity versus

Later Adulthood • • Physical changes Motor sensory ability Cognitive skills Ego integrity versus despair Copyright © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 20

Care Considerations • • Do not assume Do not stereotype Each stage has different

Care Considerations • • Do not assume Do not stereotype Each stage has different care needs All need respect, compassion, and empathy Copyright © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 21

Death and Dying • Terminal illness • Natural process – Last stage of human

Death and Dying • Terminal illness • Natural process – Last stage of human development • Elisabeth Kübler-Ross • Need for open communications • Life review Copyright © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 22

Stages of Dying • • • Denial Anger Bargaining Depression Acceptance Copyright © 2007

Stages of Dying • • • Denial Anger Bargaining Depression Acceptance Copyright © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 23