Copyright 2003 Pearson Education Inc publishing as Benjamin

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Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

1. Cancer and the cell cycle checkpoints, reqmts to advance oncogenes tumor suppressor genes

1. Cancer and the cell cycle checkpoints, reqmts to advance oncogenes tumor suppressor genes 2. 6 Traits of cancerous cells 3. Origins of cancerous cells

DNA Mitotic Phase (M) DNA DNA Interphase esis s si ito M G 2

DNA Mitotic Phase (M) DNA DNA Interphase esis s si ito M G 2 Cytokin DNA Cell growth preparation for division Interphase G 1 Cell growth S DNA replication DNA Interphase DNA

 • Proteins within the cell control the cell cycle – Signals affecting critical

• Proteins within the cell control the cell cycle – Signals affecting critical checkpoints determine whether the cell will divide (cyclins, kinases) G 1 checkpoint Control system M checkpoint G 2 checkpoint Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 8. 9 A

Anchorage, cell density, and chemical growth factors affect cell division • In laboratory cultures,

Anchorage, cell density, and chemical growth factors affect cell division • In laboratory cultures, normal cells divide only when attached to a surface = anchorage dependent Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

 • Cells continue dividing until they touch one another = density-dependent inhibition Cells

• Cells continue dividing until they touch one another = density-dependent inhibition Cells anchor to dish surface and divide. When cells have formed a complete single layer, they stop dividing (density-dependent inhibition). If some cells are scraped away, the remaining cells divide to fill the dish with a single layer and then stop (density-dependent inhibition). Figure 8. 8 A Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

 • Growth factors are proteins secreted by cells that stimulate other cells to

• Growth factors are proteins secreted by cells that stimulate other cells to divide After forming a single layer, cells have stopped dividing. Providing an additional supply of growth factors stimulates further cell division. Figure 8. 8 B Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

 • Growth factors bind to specific receptors on the plasma membrane to trigger

• Growth factors bind to specific receptors on the plasma membrane to trigger cell division Growth factor Plasma membrane Receptor protein Relay proteins Signal transduction pathway Figure 8. 8 B Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings G 1 checkpoint Cell cycle control system

 • Cancer cells have abnormal cell cycles – divide excessively and form tumors

• Cancer cells have abnormal cell cycles – divide excessively and form tumors Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

 • Breast cancer cell - altered morphology Figure 8. 10 x 1 Copyright

• Breast cancer cell - altered morphology Figure 8. 10 x 1 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Traits of cancer cells • 1. Independent of GROW signal from other cells often,

Traits of cancer cells • 1. Independent of GROW signal from other cells often, oncogenes. Ex. ras • 2. Ignores STOP signal defective damage control, so problems not corrected. Often, tumor suppressor genes. Ex. p 53 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Traits of cancer cells, continued • 3. No cell suicide (apoptosis) If this occurs,

Traits of cancer cells, continued • 3. No cell suicide (apoptosis) If this occurs, treatments which damage dividing cells may not work. • 4. No limit to cell divisions telomeres rebuilt on ends of xsomes new treatment target: telomerase Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Traits of cancer cells, continued • 5. Angiogenesis - formation of blood vessels •

Traits of cancer cells, continued • 5. Angiogenesis - formation of blood vessels • 6. Metastasis - ability to move to other tissues benign: do not move from tumor site malignant: invasive cells, can travel in blood and lymph system Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

 • Malignant tumors can invade other tissues and may kill the organism Lymph

• Malignant tumors can invade other tissues and may kill the organism Lymph vessels Tumor Glandular tissue Metastasis 1 A tumor grows from a single cancer cell. 2 Cancer cells invade neighboring tissue. Figure 8. 10 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 3 Cancer cells spread through lymph and blood vessels to other parts of the body.

How do normal cells become cancerous? Selection within tumor for “most cancerous” cells

How do normal cells become cancerous? Selection within tumor for “most cancerous” cells

What is the source of oncogenes? • Mutation of a normal gene = change

What is the source of oncogenes? • Mutation of a normal gene = change in DNA sequence • UV light, Xrays, natural or synthetic chemicals • Virus (ex. HPV and cervical cancer) Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

 • Xsomal changes can be large or small Deletion Homologous chromosomes Duplication Inversion

• Xsomal changes can be large or small Deletion Homologous chromosomes Duplication Inversion Reciprocal translocation Nonhomologous chromosomes Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 8. 23 A, B

oncogene and tumor suppressor gene function, leading to uncontrollable cell growth. Carcinogens are a

oncogene and tumor suppressor gene function, leading to uncontrollable cell growth. Carcinogens are a class of substances that are directly responsible for damaging DNA, promoting or aiding cancer. Tobacco, asbestos, arsenic, radiation such as gamma and x-rays, the sun, and compounds in car exhaust fumes are all examples of carcinogens. When our bodies are exposed to carcinogens, free radicals are formed that try to steal A chromosomal translocation in thein bone electrons from other molecules the marrow body. Theses freewith radicals damage cells and affect is associated chronic myelogenous leukemia their ability to function normally.