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Cooling Solutions Presented by Paul Almond – Datacentre UK
The Facts Energy costs are rising The cost to power and cool server room equipment now exceeds the purchase cost on a 3 -year life-cycle, based on a traditional server room / data centre configuration.
Cooling Solutions Source IDC
Cooling Solutions The Aim • Reduce energy usage • Create more efficient rack space The government will be introducing a carbon tax in 2009 All companies will have to report power usage by law
Industry Studies Recent studies reveal that data centre power densities have increased ten-fold in the last 10 years and that cooling represents upwards of 60 -70% of the total data centre power spend for the majority of customers. These costs are driven by the data centre power requirements and the volume of cooling airflow required Source HP
Cooling Challenges What are the cooling challenges in today’s data centres? 1. Agility – the ability of a system to adapt to change – increasing and unpredictable power densities driven by ever-changing business requirements. 2. Availability – to eliminate hotspots and vertical temperature gradients at the face of the rack and to assure redundancy when required. 3. Lifecycle costs – to optimise capital investment and available space – the ability to accelerate speed of deployment and lower maintenance costs, increase ROI and maximise operational efficiency. 4. Manageability – Simple and intuitive configuration – predictive failure analysis and provision of cooling performance data. 5. Serviceability – Decrease mean time to recover – simplify complexity – easier service procedures – minimise multi-vendor solutions.
Cooling Solutions 32 o. C 38 -42 o. C 22 o. C 75. 5 l/s/k. W Typical 1 U Server 49. 6 l/s/k. W (223. 2 l/s @ 4. 5 k. W) Typical 7 U Blade Server It is not only direction of airflow that must be taken into consideration, but also temperature rise across the server and the air volume required by the server fans. Blade servers are the most electrically efficient form of server. Available blade types for a given blade server system can vary dramatically in performance and power consumption
Existing Configurations Room Based Cooling The predominant architecture for cooling data centres since the inception of the mainframe has been raised floor air delivery from perimeter computer room air conditioners (CRAC). At lower densities (1 – 5 k. W / rack), adequate cooling is provided to sensitive IT equipment, despite the mixing of air throughout the room.
Existing Configurations Row Based Cooling § Place the air conditioning units in the row of rack enclosures. § Incorporating a hot / cold aisle design, heat is removed from the hot aisle as it is dispelled from the IT equipment. The hot air is then cooled and discharged to the cold aisle. § Inherent energy efficiency advantages: - fan power reduction to move the air - shift in mindset from cold air supply to heat removal - removal of heat before it has a chance to mix with surrounding air in the room makes the remaining areas in the room a large available volume of supply air Note: In-row cooling architecture, as depicted, utilises a free air discharge without ducting or any containment of hot or cold air streams. - length scale for air delivery is only a few metres or less (varies on number of racks) rather than tens of metres
Cooling Solutions Close Coupled Cooling § Eliminate the supply air from the equation § Capture all the heat where it is generated, from the hot aisle § Remove the heat before it mixes with air streams outside the § hot aisle No obstructions to block the air path § Avoid complex engineering § Variable speed fans to match cooling capacity to power load § in each aisle Room temperatures will be easier to maintain with less warm air escaping the hot aisle
Cooling Solutions How do I cool my data centre for FREE?
Cooling Solutions Free-Cooling Chillers Use ambient air to cool the warm return water Ideally suited to new designs, but free-cooling options can be retro-fitted to existing installations Technical Presentation by Fabian Lant, Export Manager of Geoclima.
Cooling Solutions TRADITIONAL Chiller Water Circuit Schematic
Free-Cooling Solutions FREE-COOLING Chiller Water Circuit Schematic
Free-Cooling Solutions Free-Cooling – Average Air Temperature
Free-Cooling Solutions Free-Cooling – Air Temperature vs Free-Cooling %
Free-Cooling Solutions Free-Cooling Chillers Air cooled systems: typically 100 k. W-1200 k. W Uses condenser fans only (i. e. no compressors) to pre-cool the returning chilled water Compressors only run if the required leaving water temperature cannot be achieved with free-cooling system Lower compressor run time = less maintenance and less down - time Capital payback typically <18 months EVEN FOR WORST CASE N+1: real bottom-line savings thereafter Maximised benefits with elevated chilled water temperatures, e. g. Hot Aisle Containment applications
Free-Cooling Solutions Free-Cooling Chillers What do I need to do to be able to utilise free cooling? 1. Create predictable air flow 2. Capture and Contain hot air to maximise return air temp 3. Raise entering water temperature Water is 350% more efficient than air at transferring and transporting heat
Air Containment Raised Floor Airflow Cold Air Containment improves cooling efficiency
Air Containment Row Based Cooling With HAC .
Air Containment Hot Aisle Airflow Hot Air Containment significantly improves cooling efficiency
Free-Cooling Solutions Free-Cooling Cost Saving Summary 120 k. W N+1 installation with Free-Cooling Chillers Achieve pay-back of the cost difference to standard chillers in <10 months for one machine; 18 months for worst-case, two-machine N+1 installations Typically achieve 100% Free-Cooling of data centre 26% (>3 months) of the year Achieve a useable level of Free-Cooling for >75% of the year Based on UK average daily temperatures measured in the SE region, 1997 to 2006 inclusive
Cooling Solutions Alternatives to Free-Cooling for energy efficient cooling solutions Turbocor Chillers • Very high efficiency, especially at lower loads • Centrifugal compressor with magnetic bearings eliminates oil and the maintenance / efficiency losses associated with traditional systems • Combine with FREE-COOLING for maximum effect
Cooling Solutions The Turbocor Compressor
Cooling Solutions Turbomiser The Product Air and water cooled systems 200 k. W-1200 k. W+ Oil-free, electronic, variable speed centrifugal compression system Combining flooded evaporators, high-efficiency fans & all-aluminium condenser coils with the revolutionary compression system to provide the ultimate energy efficient solution Reduced life cycle costs through reduced energy consumption and lower maintenance IPLV / ESEER – Typical Integrated Part Load Value and European Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio values: Air-Cooled Turbomiser Chiller = 5+, Standard Chiller = 4 max.
Cooling Solutions The Features and Benefits Oil-Free Technology Improved efficiency The end of routine oil changes Low Noise / No Vibration So quiet that with normal background noise you can’t hear it run No vibration typically means no refrigerant leaks Compressor Start-Up Current - From 2 Amps! Inherently high power factor for maximum motor efficiency and reduced peak electricity demand Soft start with smaller emergency generators
Cooling Solutions Magnetic Bearing and Rotor System Magnetic bearings and sensors keep the shaft properly centered and positioned at all times.
Cooling Solutions Flooded vs Direct Expansion [DX] Evaporators DX systems require superheat to ensure only vapour reaches the compressor Expansion valves operate at relatively high pressure differentials, hence the need to keep head pressure artificially high Flooded evaporators do not necessitate superheat The combination of flooded evaporator and predictive electronic controls ensures a minimum differential is maintained at all times to take advantage of low ambient conditions to maximise COPs under these conditions
Cooling Solutions Summary Benefits • • • Government ECA approval status Excellent full load energy efficiency Further improved part load performance Lower energy bills, reduced carbon footprint Virtually no mechanical wear Unrivalled reliability No oil to degrade the system over time Low noise No vibration Full remote monitoring capability 30% lower overall life cycle costs
Cooling Solutions If you’re still not convinced Energy–Efficiency Loans Interest-free unsecured loans of between £ 5, 000 and £ 100, 000 are available for small and medium sized businesses who are investing in an energy-saving project. Coupled with the ECA scheme this offers business really significant savings. Free Energy Surveys If your energy bill is higher than £ 50, 000 per year, then you may qualify for a FREE energy survey to provide you with a practical action plan of energy saving measures tailored to your business.
Reducing carbon footprint If you’re still not convinced Carbon Management As an impartial business advisor, the Carbon Trust can help you anticipate what’s ahead. Their Carbon Management Programme helps larger companies address the strategic issues associated with climate change. The results are cost savings, clarity around responses to legislation and corporate reputation, and brand enhancement. What is The Carbon Trust ? The Carbon Trust is an independent, Government-backed organisation that helps businesses and public sector organisations cut energy costs to combat climate change. Impartial advice and assistance is generally free to UK businesses.
Cooling Solutions The Bottom Line Two major benefits for business • The Enhanced Capital Allowance (ECA) Scheme and the Energy Technology List • Energy savings Products listed on the ETL are highly energy efficient, and should produce significant long-term financial benefits by reducing your energy bills and Climate Change Levy payments.
Cooling Solutions Thank You