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CONTROL OF HAZARDOUS ENERGY “LOCKOUT/TAGOUT” (LOTO)
LOCKOUT/TAGOUT The OSHA Standard for the Control of Hazardous Energy (Lockout/Tagout) 29 CFR 1910. 147 covers the servicing and maintenance of machines and equipment in which the unexpected start-up or the release of stored energy could cause injury to employees.
WHAT IS LOCKOUT/TAGOUT? • “LOTO” is a technique used to prevent energy from being released during the servicing of equipment. This is accomplished by placing locks on energy isolation devices prior to starting work.
TYPES OF ENERGY • • • CHEMICAL ELECTRICAL HYDRAULIC MECHANICAL THERMAL PNEUMATIC • Some energy sources can be turned on/off. • Others can only be dissipated or controlled.
CHEMICAL • HAS ENERGY THAT CAN START FIRES, CAUSE SKIN BURNS, GENERATE HARMFUL GASES OR FUMES • BEFORE WORKING-RELEASE, DRAIN OR VENT CHEMICALS SAFELY
Electrical • AS LOW AS 30 VOLTS CAN CARRY ENOUGH CURRENT TO KILL • USE NONCONDUCTING TOOLS • DISCHARGE ALL CAPACITORS AFETR LOCKOUT • ENSURE ALL CONTROL POWER IS DEENERGIZED • LOCK & TAG SOURCE BREAKERS NOT SWITCHES • STORED POTENTIAL ENERGY CAN BE RELEASED DURING WORK CAUSING INJURY OR DEATH • CHECK CIRCUTS DEAD BEFORE WORKING
HYDRAULIC • ENERGY OF LIQUIDS UNDER PRESSURE • RELIEVE PRESSURE SLOWLY INTO A PROPER CONTAINER • RAPID RELEASE CAN CAUSE INJURY • PRESSURE CAN CAUSE EQUIPMENT TO MOVE
MECHANICAL • KINETIC-IN MOTION • ENERGY OF MOVING MACHINERY CAN CAUSE, AMPUTATIONS, LACERATIONS, FRACTURES & LOSS OF LIFE • POTENTIAL-STORED ENERGY
THERMAL • ENERGY OF HEAT (& COLD) • HOT EQUIPMENT & FLUIDSD WILL BURN YOU • COLD FLUIDS CAN CAUSE INJURY ALSO • QUICK RELEASE OF COMPRESSED GASES CAN FREEZE YOUR SKIN • ALLOW EQUIPMENT TO REACH A SAFE TEMPERATURE BEFORE STARTING WORK
PNEUMATIC • ENERGY OF COMPRESSED GASES • - UNCONTROLLED RELEASE CAN CAUSE INJURY • -RAPID DE-PRESSURIZATION CREATES EXTREME LOW TEMPERATURE • PROPERLY VENT ALL SYSTEMS BEFORE STARTING WORK
FIRST STEPS IN LOTO KNOW YOUR EQUIPMENT & SYSTEMS: • hazards • isolation points • procedures Working on unfamiliar machinery is a hazard
WHAT YOU NEED FOR LOTO • WRITTEN LOTO SCHEDULE • LOCKS & TAGS-IDENTIFIED FOR THE WORKER • HASPS-FOR PLACING LOCKS & TAGS • BREAKER CLIPS-FOR ELECTRICAL LOTO • BLANK FLANGES-FOR FLUID LINES • VALVE COVERS-FOR LOTO OF VALVES • PLUG BUCKETS-FOR ELECTRICAL PLUGS
WHO CAN REMOVE LOCKS & TAGS? ? ? • ONLY THE EMPLOYEE WHO PLACED THE TAG “OR” A SUPERVISOR, AFTER OBTAINING PERMISSION FROM THE WORKER WHO PLACED THE TAG • EACH PERSON WORKING ON THE EQUIPMENT MUST PLACE THEIR OWN LOCKS & TAGS TO ENSURE THEIR SAFETY, EVEN IF THE EQUIPMENT ALREADY HAS A LOCK & TAG ON IT.
LOCKOUT/TAGOUT: SHIFT CHANGES 1. If servicing lasts more than one shift, lockout/tagout protection must not be interrupted. 2. When the employee who applied device is not there to remove it, it can be removed only in an emergency and only under the direction of the supervisor.
LOTO PROTECTS YOU!!! • USE PROPER PROCEDURES…. • PLEASE BE CAREFUL WHEN WORKING ON EQUIPMENT
How Injuries Occur During the Servicing of Equipment? – 80% failed to turn off equipment – 10% equipment activated by someone else – 5% failed to control potential energy – Most of remaining 5% disconnected power but failed to verify effectiveness
WHEN IS LOTO APPLIED? • • Adjusting Inspecting Modifying Replacing parts • Clearing jams • Lubricating • Cleaning • Tool changes • There are some situations where LOTO is not required…
EXCEPTIONS TO LOTO • Normal production operations • Routine, repetitive, & integral to production • Guards/safety devices not bypassed • Body part not placed in the point of operation or other dangerous area during machine cycle • Need to use alternative measures for protection • Cord & plug connected equipment • Plug is only source of energy • Plug is under continuous control of one person
GENERAL LOTO PROCEDURE STEP 1 ID Energy Sources STEP 2 Notify Others STEP 3 Shutdown Equipment STEP 4 Isolate Equipment STEP 5 LOTO Equipment STEP 6 Release Stored Energy STEP 7 Verify Isolation STEP 8 Perform Servicing STEP 9 Release from LOTO
LOCKOUT/TAGOUT TYPES OF DEVICES
LOCKOUT/TAGOUT DEVICES Durable – Lockout and tagout devices must withstand the environment to which they are exposed for the maximum duration of the expected exposure. Tagout devices must be constructed and printed so that they do not deteriorate or become illegible, especially when used in corrosive or wet environments.
DEFINITIONS: Energy Isolating Device - A mechanical device that physically prevents the transmission or release of energy. Energy Control Procedure - Safety program adopted by the employer that includes energy control procedures plus provisions for inspecting the procedures and training employees for lockout/tagout. Authorized Employee - one who locks out machines or equipment in order to perform the servicing or maintenance on that machine or equipment. Affected Employee - one whose job requires him/her to operate or use a machine or equipment on which servicing or maintenance is being performed under lockout, or whose job requires him/her to work in an area in which such servicing or maintenance is being performed.
TIDBITS OF INFORMATION: 1. Never attempt lockout/tagout procedures unless you have been trained and certified by your employer under an approved Energy Control Program. 2. Never loan or share your lock, combination, or key with anybody else. 3. Always be sure all lockout/tagout devices are compatible with the environment in which they will be used i. e. corrosive, humid, etc.
SUMMARY • All hazardous energy sources must be controlled (kinetic & potential). • Control via energy isolation device (do not rely on control circuit). • Only use designated lock for LOTO. • Tags must accompany all locks. • Nine-step general procedure – remember to verify isolation. • Protection must be ensured during special situations. • OSHA STANDARD…. 1910. 147