CONTRIBUTORS OF THE UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS

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CONTRIBUTORS OF THE UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS Dr. P. RAMAR, M. A. ,

CONTRIBUTORS OF THE UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS Dr. P. RAMAR, M. A. , (Hist. ), M. A. , (HR), M. Ed. , M. Phil. , Ph. D Associate Professor of History, D. G. Govt. Arts College for Women Mayiladuthurai – 609 001 Email id: [email protected] in Mobile: 9442424244

n The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is beacon in the history of

n The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is beacon in the history of humanity. n Between June, 1946 and December, 1948 a small group of unusual men and women worked in the new institutional setting of the United Nations. n In meeting in new York, in Geneva and, finally, in Paris.

n They debated philosophy, law, cultural differences and practical politics; they argued over tactics

n They debated philosophy, law, cultural differences and practical politics; they argued over tactics and language and reached compromises in pursuit of larger goals. n Finally, their efforts were renewed / when adopted, and proclaimed by the General Assembly of the United Nations Resolution No. 217 A(III) in the late night of 10 December 1948.

Major Contributors of the UDHR n The four main members of United Nations Commission

Major Contributors of the UDHR n The four main members of United Nations Commission on Human Rights; n Eleanor Roosevelt of the United States, the Chair of the Commission, n P. C. Change of China, its Vice-chair, n Charles Malik of Lebanon, the Rapporteur, n Rene Cassin of France.

n John P. Humphrey, a Canadian lawyer who served as director of Division of

n John P. Humphrey, a Canadian lawyer who served as director of Division of Human Right in the fledgling United Nations Secretariat.

Eleanor Roosevelt n Mrs. Roosevelt, widow of the late American President F. D. Roosevelt.

Eleanor Roosevelt n Mrs. Roosevelt, widow of the late American President F. D. Roosevelt. n she was neither a scholar nor a profound thinker.

P. C. Chang China n The Vice-Chair of the Commission. n Educated primarily in

P. C. Chang China n The Vice-Chair of the Commission. n Educated primarily in the United States, undergraduate at Clark University. n Graduate student at Columbia University. n He earned his Doctorate with a thesis on education and modernization in China. n A visiting professor at the University of Chicago and several British Universities. n Members of the Commission.

Charles H. Malik Lebanon n served as rapporteur of the Commission. n A tall,

Charles H. Malik Lebanon n served as rapporteur of the Commission. n A tall, striking Greek Orthodox Christian. n He also served as President of the Economic and Social Council. n Chair of the Third Committee during the 1948 debates on the Universal Declaration. n He succeeded Mrs. Roosevelt as Chair of the Human Rights Commission in 1951 and later became President of the General Assembly.

Rene Cassin (Father of Human Rights) n. A fourth very significant member of the

Rene Cassin (Father of Human Rights) n. A fourth very significant member of the Commission. n The distinguished French lawyer and philosopher. n Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his human rights work. n One of France's leading jurists. n President of the Law Faculty of the University of Paris.

n An outstanding public speaker. n Cassin was asked by the drafting committee to

n An outstanding public speaker. n Cassin was asked by the drafting committee to write an early draft of the Declaration.

John P. Humphrey n John P. Humphrey, the Director of the Human Rights Division

John P. Humphrey n John P. Humphrey, the Director of the Human Rights Division in the Secretariat's Department of Social Affairs. n A hard-nosed and pragmatic Canadian international lawyer n Passionate idealist when it came to human rights n A former Dean of the Faculty of Law at Mc. Gill University

n Demonstrated unusual qualities of constructive leadership Equally at home in French and English

n Demonstrated unusual qualities of constructive leadership Equally at home in French and English and skilled as a civil servant n An important link between English and Frenchspeaking cultural perspectives, between scholars and pragmatists, between politicians and civil servants. n He carried the main responsibility for gathering and analyzing the background documents which informed the Commission's work.

n These he assembled in a 408 page Documented Outline which became the working

n These he assembled in a 408 page Documented Outline which became the working document for the Commission. n He has written widely on human rights matters generally and the Universal Declaration in particular and, in 1948, authored a memoir of his UN human rights work.

Professor Fernand Dehousse n He played a prominent role in the work of the

Professor Fernand Dehousse n He played a prominent role in the work of the Commission. n A Belgian Socialist, Professor of Law at the University of Liege and editor of an underground newspaper during the German occupation. n Dehousse was described by the State Department as intelligent energetic and affable, although disposed to considerable directness in manner.

Col. William Hodgson Australia n short of stature, with bushy gray hair, a heavily

Col. William Hodgson Australia n short of stature, with bushy gray hair, a heavily lined face, and a stubby moustache, was sufficiently lame from a First World War wound to require a cane. n Holder of the Croix de Guerre, Col. Hodgson was a complex character-chauvinistic, nationalistic, blunt, direct and sometimes irascible in fighting the battle of the small nations in a world of big powers.

Mrs. Hansa Mehta, Indian n n The Indian representative an active member of the

Mrs. Hansa Mehta, Indian n n The Indian representative an active member of the Indian National Congress, the independence movement She served significant terms of imprisonment for her anti-colonial activities. President of SNDT Women's University, She was evaluated by the US State Department as an intelligent person, a clear thinker,

THANK YOU

THANK YOU