CONTINGENT CITIZENSHIP METTE RMER IBEN NRUP MIE ENGEN

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CONTINGENT CITIZENSHIP METTE RØMER, IBEN NØRUP, MIE ENGEN AALBORG UNIVERSITY EDINBURGH, APRIL 2018

CONTINGENT CITIZENSHIP METTE RØMER, IBEN NØRUP, MIE ENGEN AALBORG UNIVERSITY EDINBURGH, APRIL 2018

Structure of our talk • Social policy reforms and transformation of social citizenship •

Structure of our talk • Social policy reforms and transformation of social citizenship • Background: social policy changes • Consequences • Social policy reforms and the public care for adults with intellectual disabilities • Changes in the public care • Normalization vs institutionalized care • The pressure of being active

Social policy changes • Activation policy is permeating policy within the field of social

Social policy changes • Activation policy is permeating policy within the field of social and economic protection for adults with cognitive and intellectual disabilities, while it used to be a tool used in policies targeting unemployment. • Financial incentives to take up work = reduced benefits • Limited access to help & benefit = conditionality • Expansion of target groups in activation policies • Norms of “the good worker” / “the active citizen” / “the productive citizen” • Work or activities simulating work are seen as the key to inclusion

Changes in the perception of illness and disabilities • Illness & disabilities are seen

Changes in the perception of illness and disabilities • Illness & disabilities are seen as relative and ”individual” • ”It doesn’t matter how you are – what matters is how you respond” • From functional limitations to coping and workability • The ability to be active are seen as depending on motivation rather than on functional ability

Changes in the understanding of social- and care work • The “activation regime” is

Changes in the understanding of social- and care work • The “activation regime” is also present in social- and care work targeting disabled individuals • From passive to active recipients of benefits / clients / patients • The social- or care worker as someone who is assiting or facilitating the individual’s proces towards becoming active • ”Help to help themselves” • Organization and structure of social- and care work favours a certain client profile (the active or participating client)

Consequences • The political understanding of social citizenship has become heavily contingent on participation

Consequences • The political understanding of social citizenship has become heavily contingent on participation on meeting the good worker norm / active citizen norm • Disabled individuals who are unable to meet this norm are left ‘behind’ • Help (benefits, care etc. ) becomes more and more dependent on ability to become ‘active’ • Result = marginalization of those who depend strongly on the help but are unable to meet the ideal of an active citizen

Public care for people with Intellectual Disability (ID) in Denmark • From institutional care

Public care for people with Intellectual Disability (ID) in Denmark • From institutional care to normalisation, integration in the community and equal rights • Results from a casestudy of professional practice in 3 accommodation facilities for people with ID • Participant observation for 270 hours of the interactions between professionals and residents, when care and support was delivered

Institutional timeorders and effectivity • Depending on care and support and living in groups

Institutional timeorders and effectivity • Depending on care and support and living in groups • A smaller group of employees have to distribute their time, attention and help on a larger group of residents • A time-order focused on effectivity • A focus on tasks to be done – instead of processes, possibilities of participation and the quality of social relations

Being active as a pressure to conform • Residents, who are not easy to

Being active as a pressure to conform • Residents, who are not easy to activate to do their tasks; who does not cooperate are perceived as problematic • Social work focus on modifying the residents’ behavior and developing their abilities to cope with institutional demands • Consequence: The functional limitations and problems that the residents have a right to be compensated for, are maintained and reproduced as problems

Conclusions • Dependency is considered problematic • Contingent citizenship and problems with individualised care

Conclusions • Dependency is considered problematic • Contingent citizenship and problems with individualised care – care and social support is rendered conditional • From the active state to the activating state • From individual centered goals to state centered goals

Thank you for listening! ibenn@socsci. aau. dk engen@socsci. aau. dk

Thank you for listening! [email protected] aau. dk [email protected] aau. dk