Consumer Behavior Sales promotion programs Consumer response to

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Consumer Behavior Sales promotion programs Consumer response to sales promotion programs

Consumer Behavior Sales promotion programs Consumer response to sales promotion programs

Consumer Behavior Sales promotion programs Outline • • • Definition of sales promotion Types

Consumer Behavior Sales promotion programs Outline • • • Definition of sales promotion Types of sales promotions Benefit-congruency model of sales promotions Instrumental conditioning and sales promotions Behavioral influence strategies

Consumer Behavior Sales promotion programs Sales promotions • directed at either marketing intermediaries or

Consumer Behavior Sales promotion programs Sales promotions • directed at either marketing intermediaries or consumers; • designed to affect behavior directly (not through intervening mental processes); Manufacturer Consumer promotions Trade promotions Consumer Trade Retailer promotions

Consumer Behavior Sales promotion programs Types of consumer promotions • coupons: different types of

Consumer Behavior Sales promotion programs Types of consumer promotions • coupons: different types of coupons; • sampling: full- or trial-size products delivered via direct mail, print media, door to door, in or on packages, etc. ; • premiums: goods or services offered free-in-themail or in self-liquidating form or in-, or nearpack; • price-offs: reduction in a brand’s regular price by about 10 to 25 percent; • bonus packs: offer of extra quantities of the product at the regular price;

Consumer Behavior Sales promotion programs Types of consumer promotions (cont’d) • refunds and rebates:

Consumer Behavior Sales promotion programs Types of consumer promotions (cont’d) • refunds and rebates: cash discounts or reimbursements for the purchase of packaged goods or durable goods; • sweepstakes and contests: opportunity to win cash, merchandise, travel prizes, etc. purely on the basis of chance or for solving the contest problem; • overlay and tie-in promotions: use of multiple sales promotion tools (combination programs) and promotion of multiple brands by the same (intracompany pooling) or different (inter-company tieins) manufacturers (joint or group promotions);

Consumer Behavior Sales promotion programs Types of retail promotions • price discounts: reduction of

Consumer Behavior Sales promotion programs Types of retail promotions • price discounts: reduction of regular price, “ 2 for” or “ 3 for”, etc. • displays: end-of-aisle, front-of-the-store, in-aisle, shelf-talker and other POP displays; • feature advertising: announcements of specials in local newspapers or circulars (e. g. , on “Best food days”), often paid for by co-op or advertising allowances; • other promotions: “in-ad” coupons, special financing charges, premiums/contests, free goods, free trial, etc.

Consumer Behavior Sales promotion programs Benefit-congruency model of sales promotions • Benefits offered by

Consumer Behavior Sales promotion programs Benefit-congruency model of sales promotions • Benefits offered by sales promotions – Utilitarian benefits – Hedonic benefits • Benefit congruency – Basic idea – Moderating influence of brand equity

Consumer Behavior Sales promotion programs Sales promotion benefits Utilitarian Savings Quality Hedonic Convenience Value

Consumer Behavior Sales promotion programs Sales promotion benefits Utilitarian Savings Quality Hedonic Convenience Value expression Entertainment Exploration

Consumer Behavior Sales promotion programs Sales promotion benefit matrix high H e d o

Consumer Behavior Sales promotion programs Sales promotion benefit matrix high H e d o n i c b e n e f i t s low Free gifts Free product offers Sweepstakes Coupons Rebates Utilitarian benefits Price reductions high

Consumer Behavior Sales promotion programs Instrumental (operant) conditioning stimulus situation organism R 1 R

Consumer Behavior Sales promotion programs Instrumental (operant) conditioning stimulus situation organism R 1 R 2 Rx R 4 R 5 reinforcement the likelihood that Rx will be emitted again in the same stimulus situation increases Basic idea: Behavior is a function of its consequences!

Consumer Behavior Sales promotion programs Instrumental conditioning (cont’d) • instrumental conditioning (IC) involves learning

Consumer Behavior Sales promotion programs Instrumental conditioning (cont’d) • instrumental conditioning (IC) involves learning of relationships between responses and their consequences; • IC deals with operant behaviors (i. e. , usually voluntary responses that are emitted because of the consequences they produce); • pleasant or unpleasant consequences can be used in IC; • consequences can be administered according to different schedules of reinforcement; • immediate reinforcement is usually more effective than delayed reinforcement; • complicated behaviors can be learned through shaping;

Consumer Behavior Sales promotion programs Types of consequences used in IC response causes [(un)pleasant]

Consumer Behavior Sales promotion programs Types of consequences used in IC response causes [(un)pleasant] consequence to be presented removed increase of target behavior positive reinforcement negative reinforcement decrease of target behavior positive punishment negative punishment response influence

Consumer Behavior Sales promotion programs Consequence strategies for promoting safety belt use (Geller et

Consumer Behavior Sales promotion programs Consequence strategies for promoting safety belt use (Geller et al. 1982) Response based: • vehicle voice-synthesizer responds with “Thank you” upon buckling; • aversive buzzer in vehicle avoided by buckling up; • child receives reprimand from parent when observed sitting next to an unused safety seat; • child loses TV privileges when refusing to sit in child safety seat; Outcome based: • car raffled off when 70% belt usage reached at a plant; • severe injury avoided as a result of being buckled in a collision; • employee receives letter of reprimand from corporate safety office when observed unbuckled; • teenager loses driving privileges when parent observes him unbuckled;

Consumer Behavior Sales promotion programs Schedules of reinforcement • continuous reinforcement schedules: every occurrence

Consumer Behavior Sales promotion programs Schedules of reinforcement • continuous reinforcement schedules: every occurrence of the response of interest is reinforced; • intermittent (partial) reinforcement schedules: only some of the responses of interest are reinforced; • ratio vs. interval schedules (frequency of reinforcement depends on either the rate at which responses are emitted or the passage of time); • fixed vs. variable schedules (reinforcement is administered either regularly or probabilistically);

Consumer Behavior Sales promotion programs Examples of reinforcement schedules in a promotional context •

Consumer Behavior Sales promotion programs Examples of reinforcement schedules in a promotional context • a rebate is offered for each purchase of a product; • get a free frozen yoghurt with 10 proofs of purchase; • scratch-off coupon with a chance of winning a free drink (probability of winning is 1 in a 1000); • 10% off on one purchase a month; • special deals are available when a particular light in the store is on, with the light turned on every couple of hours on average;

Consumer Behavior Sales promotion programs Behavioral influence strategies • foot-in-the-door technique: based on the

Consumer Behavior Sales promotion programs Behavioral influence strategies • foot-in-the-door technique: based on the notion that once a person has been induced to comply with a small request, (s)he is more likely to comply with a larger demand; theoretical rationale for this effect may be found in self-perception theory, which argues that people infer their attitudes from self -observation of their own behavior; • door-in-the-face technique: based on the notion that initial noncompliance with an extreme demand may increase subsequent compliance with a more moderate request; the effect can be explained by assuming that the second request is perceived as a concession which creates normative pressures to reciprocate;

Consumer Behavior Sales promotion programs On inducing compliance with requests (Reingen) • 224 students

Consumer Behavior Sales promotion programs On inducing compliance with requests (Reingen) • 224 students at the University of South Carolina were approached by volunteers of the Heart Association with a request to make a donation; • the following types of requests were investigated: – donation request only: direct request for a donation; – small-then-donation request: first request to answer four short questions as part of a survey (e. g. , have you heard of the Heart Association? ), then request for a donation; – extreme-then-donation request: first request to pledge 3 $ per month for a year, then request for a donation; – even-a-penny condition: direct request for money, with addition that “Even a penny will help”; – small-then-donation and extreme-then-donation requests with addition of even-a-penny condition;

Consumer Behavior Sales promotion programs Inducing compliance with requests (cont’d) percent total average compliance

Consumer Behavior Sales promotion programs Inducing compliance with requests (cont’d) percent total average compliance donations donation-request only small-then-donation request extreme-then donation request even-a-penny small-then-donation request, even-a-penny extreme-then-donation request, even-a-penny 19 34 34 47 3. 07 6. 50 6. 75 4. 64 0. 51 0. 59 0. 61 0. 31 50 7. 20 0. 45 44 5. 60 0. 40