Consumer Behavior Communication programs Consumer response to communication

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Consumer Behavior Communication programs Consumer response to communication programs

Consumer Behavior Communication programs Consumer response to communication programs

Consumer Behavior Communication programs Outline • Communication objectives • Attitudes and their measurement •

Consumer Behavior Communication programs Outline • Communication objectives • Attitudes and their measurement • Attitude change and persuasion – The two routes to persuasion – Central-route approaches – Peripheral-route approaches

Consumer Behavior Communication programs Communication objectives • Category need • Brand awareness • Brand

Consumer Behavior Communication programs Communication objectives • Category need • Brand awareness • Brand attitude • Brand purchase intention/purchase

Consumer Behavior Communication programs Attitudes definition: a tendency to evaluate people (e. g. ,

Consumer Behavior Communication programs Attitudes definition: a tendency to evaluate people (e. g. , a salesperson), objects (e. g. , a product, an ad), or events (e. g. , the purchase of a brand) with some degree of favorability or unfavorability; components of an attitude: – cognitive component: beliefs about the attitude concept; – affective component: feeling-based reactions toward the attitude concept; – conative component: overt behavioral responses or intentions to act;

Consumer Behavior Communication programs Measurement of attitudes • Likert scaling: statements that are thought

Consumer Behavior Communication programs Measurement of attitudes • Likert scaling: statements that are thought to reflect either a favorable or unfavorable attitude toward the concept of interest are rated on agreedisagree scales (typically 5 -point scales) and the ratings are then summated (after reverse-scoring negative items); • semantic differential scaling: the attitude concept is rated on a series of bipolar adjective scales (typically 7 -point scales) such as good-bad, favorable-unfavorable, or pleasant-unpleasant;

Consumer Behavior Communication programs Advertising is generally informative. __1__ __2__ __3__ __4__ __5__ strongly

Consumer Behavior Communication programs Advertising is generally informative. __1__ __2__ __3__ __4__ __5__ strongly disagree neither agree strongly agree Most advertising insults my intelligence. __1__ __2__ __3__ __4__ __5__ strongly disagree neither agree strongly agree

Consumer Behavior Communication programs My attitude toward advertising can be best described as: Positive

Consumer Behavior Communication programs My attitude toward advertising can be best described as: Positive _1_ _2_ _3_ _4_ _5_ _6_ _7_ Negative Unfavorable _1_ _2_ _3_ _4_ _5_ _6_ _7_ Favorable Good _1_ _2_ _3_ _4_ _5_ _6_ _7_ Bad

Consumer Behavior Communication programs Two routes to persuasion • there are two routes to

Consumer Behavior Communication programs Two routes to persuasion • there are two routes to persuasion: – central route: people scrutinize the arguments in the message; – peripheral route: cues that are not based on a careful consideration of the true merits of the message can have persuasive impact; • a person’s motivation and/or ability to engage in issue-relevant thinking determines the route: – when motivation and ability are high, attitudes change follows the central route; – when motivation and/or ability are low, attitude change occurs via the peripheral route;

Consumer Behavior Communication programs The two routes to attitude change persuasive communication nature of

Consumer Behavior Communication programs The two routes to attitude change persuasive communication nature of cognitive processing ? motivation to process ? yes ability to process ? no no peripheral cue present ? yes peripheral attitude shift favorable neither or unfavorable thoughts neutral thoughts predominate central positive attitude change central negative attitude change

Consumer Behavior Communication programs Influences on persuasion variables can influence the extent and direction

Consumer Behavior Communication programs Influences on persuasion variables can influence the extent and direction of attitude change by: • serving as persuasive arguments (e. g. , weak vs. strong arguments); • serving as peripheral cues (e. g. , source expertise or attractiveness, number of arguments); • affecting the extent and direction of message elaboration (e. g. , involvement as a determinant of motivation to process and distraction as a determinant of ability to process);

Consumer Behavior Communication programs Effects of the two routes to persuasion • centrally changed

Consumer Behavior Communication programs Effects of the two routes to persuasion • centrally changed attitudes are relatively enduring, resistant to counterpersuasion, and predictive of behavior; • peripherally changed attitudes are more temporary, susceptible to counterpersuasion, and less predictive of behavior;

Consumer Behavior Communication programs Involvement and persuasion (Petty et al. ) • • •

Consumer Behavior Communication programs Involvement and persuasion (Petty et al. ) • • • 160 Ss were exposed to 12 ads, one of which was the target ad for a fictitious product called the Edge razor; Ss were assigned to one of the 8 cells in a 2 (involvement: low or high) x 2 (argument quality: weak or strong) x 2 (peripheral cue: celebrity or noncelebrity status) factorial design; involvement was manipulated by promising Ss a gift of either a brand of disposable razors or a brand of toothpaste and by telling Ss that Edge razors would soon be introduced in their own city or test marketed in another part of the country; argument quality was manipulated by presenting five cogent (e. g. , advanced honing method for unsurpassed sharpness) or five specious (e. g. , floats in water with a minimum of rust) product claims in the ad; in the celebrity status condition, famous golf and tennis celebrities endorsed the product, in the noncelebrity status condition Bakersfield, CA, endorsed it; attitude toward the product and purchase intentions as the dependent variables;

Consumer Behavior Communication programs Involvement and persuasion (cont’d) • attitudes: significant involvement x endorser

Consumer Behavior Communication programs Involvement and persuasion (cont’d) • attitudes: significant involvement x endorser and involvement x argument quality interactions; attitude strong arguments noncelebrity low high involvement weak arguments low high involvement • intentions: argument quality was a more important determinant of purchase intentions under high rather than low involvement; attitudes were better predictors of intentions under high involvement;

Consumer Behavior Communication programs Central-route persuasion: Fishbein’s expectancy-value model attitudes are a function of

Consumer Behavior Communication programs Central-route persuasion: Fishbein’s expectancy-value model attitudes are a function of the strength of beliefs about the attitude concept and the evaluative aspect of those beliefs; Ac = S bi ei components: • number of salient beliefs (i=1, . . . , n) • strength of each belief ( bi ) • evaluative aspect of each belief (ei )

Consumer Behavior Communication programs My attitude toward Jif creamy peanut butter can be best

Consumer Behavior Communication programs My attitude toward Jif creamy peanut butter can be best described as: Unfavorable ___ (1) ___ (2) ___ (3) ___ (4) ___ (5) ___ (6) ___ (7) Favorable

Consumer Behavior Communication programs creamy fatty Jif fresh roasted peanut taste Unlikely ___ (1)

Consumer Behavior Communication programs creamy fatty Jif fresh roasted peanut taste Unlikely ___ (1) ___ (2) ___ (3) ___ (4) ___ (5) ___ (6) ___ (7) Bad ___ (-3) ___ (-2) ___ (-1) ___ (0) ___ ___ (+1) (+2) (+3) Likely Good

Consumer Behavior Communication programs Changing cognitive structure using the EV model • add a

Consumer Behavior Communication programs Changing cognitive structure using the EV model • add a new positive belief; • increase the strength of an existing positive belief; • increase the evaluation of a strongly held positive belief;

Consumer Behavior Communication programs Central-route persuasion: The cognitive response model • people actively relate

Consumer Behavior Communication programs Central-route persuasion: The cognitive response model • people actively relate information contained in persuasive messages to extant knowledge stored in memory and generate idiosyncratic thoughts in response to the message (socalled cognitive responses); • attitude change depends on § the extent of processing § the valence of thoughts

Consumer Behavior Communication programs The measurement of cognitive responses • use of post-message thought

Consumer Behavior Communication programs The measurement of cognitive responses • use of post-message thought listings to assess cognitive responses; • when content analyzing subjects’ thought protocols, cognitive responses are often classified as support arguments, counter arguments, or source derogations;

Consumer Behavior Communication programs Peripheral-route persuasion • source effects: credibility, attractiveness, and liking of

Consumer Behavior Communication programs Peripheral-route persuasion • source effects: credibility, attractiveness, and liking of the spokesperson; • message effects: number of arguments, inferences based on brand name or product attributes, etc. ; • context effects: message repetition, program or editorial context, mood;

Consumer Behavior Communication programs Using classical (respondent) conditioning for peripheral persuasion I. II. UCS

Consumer Behavior Communication programs Using classical (respondent) conditioning for peripheral persuasion I. II. UCS elicits UCR paired with NS (CS to be) III. CS comes to elicit CR

Consumer Behavior Communication programs Classical conditioning (cont’d) • CS and UCS should be paired

Consumer Behavior Communication programs Classical conditioning (cont’d) • CS and UCS should be paired repeatedly and consistently; • forward conditioning is better than backward conditioning; • CC is more effective when the UCS and CS are novel, salient, and relevant or similar to each other (because associations are more easily formed);

Consumer Behavior Communication programs Music and pen choice (Gorn) • one-minute extract of music

Consumer Behavior Communication programs Music and pen choice (Gorn) • one-minute extract of music from “Grease” as the positive UCS, one minute of atonal Indian classical music as the negative UCS; light blue and beige pens as originally neutral CS; • Ss watched a slide of either a light blue or beige pen while hearing either liked or disliked music; • as a reward for their participation in the study, Ss could choose either a light blue or beige pen; • finally, Ss were asked why they had picked a pen with a particular color;

Consumer Behavior Communication programs Music and pen choice (cont’d) • effect of music on

Consumer Behavior Communication programs Music and pen choice (cont’d) • effect of music on pen choice: choice of nonadvertised pen liked music 79% 21% disliked music 30% 70% • 91% of the people who provided a reason for their choice mentioned color preference as their reason;

Consumer Behavior Communication programs Attitudes and behavior: Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) (Fishbein and

Consumer Behavior Communication programs Attitudes and behavior: Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) (Fishbein and Ajzen) B = f(BI) = w 1 Aact + w 2 SN where: B = BI = Aact = SN = w 1, w 2 = behavioral intention attitude toward the behavior subjective norm weights that reflect the relative influence of Aact and SN

Consumer Behavior Communication programs Components of the TRA Aact: a person’s evaluation of performing

Consumer Behavior Communication programs Components of the TRA Aact: a person’s evaluation of performing the behavior Aact = S bi ei components: • outcomes or consequences of behavior (i=1, . . . , m) • strength of behavioral beliefs (bi) • evaluative aspect of each outcome or consequence (ei) SN: a person’s perceptions of the social pressures put on him or her to perform the behavior SN = S NBj MCj components: • relevant referents for behavior (j=1, . . . , n) • strength of normative beliefs (NBj) • motivation to comply (MCj)

Consumer Behavior Communication programs Components of the TRA (cont’d) BI: a plan or an

Consumer Behavior Communication programs Components of the TRA (cont’d) BI: a plan or an expectation to perform the behavior, which is a function of both personal and social factors; BI = w 1 Aact + w 2 SN B: actual performance of the behavior B = f(BI) Note: if a person does not have complete control over performance of the behavior, behavioral intentions and behavior may also be a function of the person’s perceived behavioral control (i. e. , how easy or difficult performance of the behavior is thought to be);

In-class exercise: Predicting coupon usage Consumer 1 Consumer 2 Consumer 3 CU 10 20

In-class exercise: Predicting coupon usage Consumer 1 Consumer 2 Consumer 3 CU 10 20 2 BI 6 9 2 b 1 5 7 2 b 2 4 1 2 b 3 3 2 2 e 1 2 3 0 e 2 0 1 -1 e 3 0 1 -1 NB 1 1 4 3 NB 2 2 2 3 MC 1 3 3 2 MC 2 3 3 1

Consumer Behavior Communication programs TRA applied to coupon usage (cont’d) EV 1 rewards EV

Consumer Behavior Communication programs TRA applied to coupon usage (cont’d) EV 1 rewards EV 2 . 71 a -. 08 b Aact encumbrances EV 3 . 51 a -. 12 a inconveniences NB 1 MC 1 BI B . 48 a spouse NB 2 MC 2 . 68 a . 10 b SN . 31 a family NB 3 MC 3 friends . 05 Note: standardized path coefficients, with a p<. 01, b p<. 05 (one-tailed)

Consumer Behavior Communication programs Conditions under which attitudes and intentions will predict behavior •

Consumer Behavior Communication programs Conditions under which attitudes and intentions will predict behavior • volitional control • correspondence in level of specificity – action: single/multiple acts – target: concept at which action is directed – context: situational circumstance of action – time: when an action is to be performed • stability of attitudes and intentions