- Slides: 13
Conjunctions are words which are use to connect words or clauses together in a sentence. You can use conjunction to link words, phrases And clauses , as in the following example : ﻭﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻂ ﻟﺮﺑﻂ ﻛﻠﻤﺘﻴﻦ. ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺑﻂ ﻫﻲ ﻛﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﺮﺑﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺃﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻠﺔ : ﻛﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ، ﺃﻮ ﺷﺒﻪ ﺟﻤﻠﺔ ﻭ ﺃﺨﺮﻯ ﺃﻮ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺗﻴﻦ * I ate the pizza and the pasta. * Call the movers when you are ready. Conjunctions are divided into three parts types according to the Complexity of the conjunction. . ﺗﻨﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺑﻂ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺛﻼﺙ ﺃﻨﻮﺍﻉ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺗﺸﺎﺑﻚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻠﺔ
Coordinating Conjunctions ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺑﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺴﻴﻘﻴﺔ Coordinating conjunction are used to join individual words, phrases, and Independent clauses. Coordinating conjunctions are ( and, but , or , nor, for , so , yet ). ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺴﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﻟﺮﺑﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺃﺸﺒﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺃﻤﺜﻠﺔ * I asked Ahmed to give me the pen and the book. * He can speak English , but I don’t know English. *You can go by bus , or you can walk.
Subordinating conjunction ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺑﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ A subordinating conjunction introduces a dependent clause and indicates the nature of the relationship among the independent clause (s) and the dependent clause (s). ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻠ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﺮﺍﺑﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻭ ﻳﻮﺿﺢ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ( after , although , as , because , before , how , if , since , than , that , though, Till , until , while , when , where , whether ). ﺃﻤﺜﻠﺔ * After she had learned to drive, Alice felt more independent. * If the paperwork arrives on time, your cheque will be mailed on Tuesday. *Ali had to begin his thesis over again when his computer crashed. * As soon as I arrive in Cairo I visited Ahmed. * Although they have two children , they want to get more babies. ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻂ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﻤﻔﺮﺩﻩ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻨﻪ ﺗﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻓﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻦ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺑﻂ . ﻹﻛﻤﺎﻟﻬﺎ ﻣﻜﺘﻤﻠﺔ ﻭ ﺗﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﺃﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ
Though , although * ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ *Though he is very good in English , he doesn’t get the full marks in the test. *Although Ali is an Egyptian, he lives in America all the time. However +adjective / adverb * ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ *However slowly he drives , he arrives work in time. *However beautiful she is , she has not married yet. *However hard the exam is, Ali has got the full marks. ﻟﻬﻤﺎ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻭ ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻷﻮﻟﻰ ﻳﺄﺘﻲ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺛﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ although ﻭ However ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻦ : ﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻳﺄﺘﻲ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ ﺃﻮ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻝ ﻳﺘﺒﻌﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺛﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻻﺣﻆ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ، Although he is a successful businessman, he has lost his money. * *However successful he is , he has lost his money.
Thus , so , therefore , as a result , consequently ﻟﺬﻟﻚ. . * ﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ * Ali studies hard, so he gets high marks every exam. * He ate bad meat, therefore he fell ill. * He speaks English fluently, so he was employed in a big company. Despite , in spite of … . . . * ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ * Despite his success, he didn’t get high marks. * In spite of his great strength , he couldn’t open gate. * In spite of feeling tired , we decided to get out. * Nuclear power stations are built despite widespread opposition.
Either …. . or . . . ﻭ ﻻ. . . . * ﻻ * Either Ali or Ahmed is speaks English well. ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻳﺄﺘﻲ ﻣﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺮﺩ When * ﻋﻨﺪﻣـ ـ ــﺎ * He went to the cinema, when the accident occurred. While , as * ﺑﻴﻨﻤ ـ ــﺎ *While I was walking home, I met my father and his friend. * As I was studying my lessons, some one turned of the lamp.
So that * ﻟﻜ ــﻲ * She works hard in her study so that she could get high marks. * Ali travelled to England so that he might resume his studies in biology. Lest , for fear that * ﺧﺸﻴﺔ ﺃﻦ * She wore heavy clothes for fear that she might catch cold. * He works very hard lest he would miss his position. Whether … or not ﺃﻢ ﻟﻢ. . . * ﺳﻮﺍﺀ * Whether they come with or not, we will go to the cinema. * I will go to the party whether they invite me or not.
So + Adjective + that ﺟﺪ ﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺃﻦ. . * * She is so beautiful that all men want to marry her. * He is so excellent that he got full marks in all subjects. Such a + adjective + that. . . ﺟﺪﺍ ﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺃﻦ. . . * * She is such a beautiful girl that all men want to marry her. * He is such an excellent student that he got full marks in all subjects. : ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ such ﺃﻮ so ﻻﺣﻆ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻠﺔ ﺑـ * So beautiful is she that all men want to marry her. * Such a beautiful girl is she that all men want to marry her. ﻳﺄﺘﻲ such ﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺑـ. ﺗﺄﺘﻲ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ ﺛﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺛﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ so ﻻﺣﻆ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺑـ . ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ ﺛﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺛﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ
Too + adjective + to . . . . * ﺟﺪﺍ ﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ * This test is too hard to answer. * The tea is too hot to drink. Enough to…. , enough for. . . * ﻛﺎﻓﻲ ﻟـ * This money is enough for you. * This money is enough to buy the book. * This money is enough for you to buy the book. ﻳﺄﺘﻲ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ enough for ﻳﺄﺘﻲ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺃﻤﺎ enough to ﻻﺣﻆ ﺍﻥ Since * ﻣﻨ ــﺬ * He hasn’t come to the club since his father was ill. * He didn’t come to the club since last week. . ﻳﺄﺘﻲ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺑﺴﻴﻂ ﻭ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ ﻣﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺗﺎﻡ since ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻂ last week , last month, 1999 ﻳﺄﺘﻲ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺯﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ since ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻂ